The Jade Emperor, Yu-huang
The Jade Emperor, Yu-huang, and The Master of The Saints, Seng Tsiu, are almost identical in features and gestures. Both are represented as Emperors seated on dragon thrones, wearing the imperial headdress with pearl pendants and holding a kui, “ceremonial tablet”. Only the color of their robes differ: Yellow for Yu-huang and black for Seng Tsiu. Mien priests invoke the Jade Emperor’s presence for ‘calling upon the Heavens’, as the supreme authority for settlement of disputes between humans, their ancestors and the Tribunals of Purgatory. In Mien liturgy, The Master of The Saints is always invoked after The Jade Emperor.