Verbal Adverbs (Gerunds)

1. How to Find Them

(1) Present Verbal Adverbs can be spotted by recognizing

the present tense stem (3pl. form minus -í or ou) AND the suffixes -a or -e/ě (masc. sg.) í/ou-c (neut. & fem. sg), í/ou-ce (pl)) and the present tense stem for the present 3pl. and

dělaje, dělajíc, dělajíce (dělat, 3pl. dělají)

sázeje, sázejíc, sázejíce

nesa, nesouc, nesouce (nést, 3pl. nesou)

tiskna, tisknouc, tisknouce (tisknout, 3pl. tisknou)

(2) Past Verbal Adverbs can be spotted by recognizing:

the l-participle stem (masc. l-participle sg. form minus -l) and the suffixes -v or zero (masc. sg.), (v or zero)-ši (neut. & fem. sg.) and (v or zero)-še (pl.)

přines, přinesši, přinesše (přinést, přinesl)

sebrav, sebravši, sebravše (sebrat, sebral)

jít and its prefixed verbs have an unusual form: (při)šed, (při)šedši, (při)šedše

2. Verbal Adverbs function basically as an adverb, i.e. as a modifier of a verb; they report the manner in which something was done, the reason why something was done.

(1) Present verbal adverbs express an action (in bold style) simultaneous with the event in the main clause (in italics):

The poet was closely watching the accident, while picking his nose.

Básník pečlivě sledoval nehodu, dloubaje se v nose.

(2) Past verbal adverbs express and action prior to the event in the main clause:

Having returned home, the poet wrote up a poem about the accident.

Vrátiv se domů, básník napsal báseň o nehodě.