Christine Biron, Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 1980
Esther Elizabeth Brintzenhoff Professor of Medical Science
Molecular Microbiology & Immunology
Work: +1 401-863-2921
Research in Professor Biron's laboratory is directed at understanding the cellular and cytokine mechanisms regulating immune defenses. There is a particular interest in the responses to acute viral infections and links between innate and adaptive immunity. Basic pathways regulating natural killer (NK) and T cells are being defined. Focus includes regulation of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs).
BiographyChristine A. Biron, Brintzenhoff Professor and former Chairperson in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, focuses her research on innate immunity to viruses, particularly at the level of natural killer cells, cytokines, and signal transducers and activators of transcription. She trained at UMASS, UNC, and Scripps Research Foundation, and was a Visiting Scientist at the Karolinska Institute as well as a Visiting Professor at Trinity College Dublin. A past Scholar of the Leukemia Society of American, she has served as Associate Editor for the Journal of Immunology, on the Editorial Board for Virology, on NIH Study Sections, and on the Board of Scientific Counselors of the NCI. She is currently a Journal of Experimental Medicine Advisory Editor, Associate Editor for Immunity, on the External Scientific Advisory Board for the Trudeau Institute, and on the Board of Scientific Counselors of the NIAID. She is a member of the American Association of Immunologists and American Society for Virology, an elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Academy of Microbiology, and serves on the US-Japan Immunology Board for NIAID.
Research DescriptionThe Biron laboratory's research is directed at understanding innate immune responses to viral infections. The information obtained from its work has helped to open up this exciting field. Focus is at the level of biological context during evolving responses. The studies stay close to the in vivo condition, are multi-disciplinary, reveal the complexity of whole organism context, and define mechanisms. Work began almost exclusively directed at examining natural killer (NK) cells in human and mouse systems. This lead to characterization of physiologically relevant factors controlling endogenous NK and T cell responses during infections of mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The mediators examined include cytokines, glucocorticoid hormones, and chemokines. The most recent work has moved into defining mechanisms regulating accessibility to intracellular signaling pathways to shape the downstream consequences of cytokine exposure. The major conclusions and contributions to scientific knowledge can be grouped into four areas: (1) NK Cell Regulation and Function - The results have significantly contributed to proving NK cells are important in antiviral defense, to characterizing unique features of this cell subset and its responses, and to dissecting mechanisms regulating these cells in vivo. (2) Induction and Cellular Sources of Innate Cytokines - They have shown that there is a plasticity of sources, including plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), for innate cytokines during challenges with infectious agents, and are beginning to reveal the interactions in place to sense and elicit the responses most beneficial under the conditions of particular infections. (3) Cytokine Function in Health and Disease - They have demonstrated the role of innate cytokines in viral pathogenesis. In addition, they have shown how in vivo conditions dramatically alter consequences of cytokine administration and of secondary challenges with other microbial products, and suggested mechanisms by which underlying subclinical infections can predispose to critical illness during bacterial infections. The work has also identified interactions between the neuroendocrine and immune systems to regulate cytokine responses during viral infections. (4) Unique Roles for, and Mechanisms Regulating Functions of, Type 1 Interferons (i.e., IFNalpha/beta) - They have demonstrated that the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is required for certain, but negatively regulates other potential IFN-alpha/beta immunoregulatory effects, and that total STAT1 protein levels are dynamically regulated during the course of an endogenous viral infection with accompanying changes in type 1 IFN activation of another signaling molecule and consequences for CD8 T cell proliferation. These observations suggest that endogenous pathways are in place to differentially regulate levels of individual signaling molecules to qualitatively modify downstream responses to cytokines. Taken together, the laboratory's efforts are helping to shape a clear picture of mechanisms in place to promote the induction and function of innate immune responses, and are providing insights for therapeutic approaches to enhance health in the treatment of infections, cancers, and immunodeficiencies.
Grants and AwardsFellow of the Leukemia Society of America, 1981-1983
Special Fellow of the Leukemia Society of America, 1983-1985
Scholar of the Leukemia Society of America, 1986-1991
M.A. ad eundem, Brown University, 1991
Brintzenhoff Professor of Medical Sciences, Brown University, 1996
Shipley Symposium Speaker, Harvard Medical School, 2001
Elected Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2002
Anderson Symposium Speaker, University of Virginia, 2005
US-Japan Immunology Board, for National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Elected Fellow of the American Academy for Microbiology, 2009
AffiliationsAmerican Association of Immunologists
American Society for Virology
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Society of Leukocyte Biology
Society of Natural Immunity
Intl. Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
American Society for Microbiology
New York Academy of Sciences
Funded ResearchActive Funding
NIH Grant R01-AI55677-06A2; Type 1 IFN Function and Signaling in Immunity to
Viruses; 9/1/10-8/31/14; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $1,197,044/4 yrs;
Total Costs - $1,939,211/4 yrs.
Award and Funding History
Leukemia Society of America Fellowship; 7/1/81 - 6/30/83; Salary Award; Direct Costs -
American Cancer Society Institutional Grant #IN-129; Blastogenesis and Proliferation
of Natural Killer Cells In Vivo; 1983; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $5,820/1yr.
University of Minnesota Foundation Trust; 1984; Award of $400.
Leukemia Society of America Special Fellowship; 7/1/83 - 6/30/85; Salary Award;
Direct Costs - $37,000/2yr.
American Association of Immunologists Travel Grant To Attend International Congress of
Immunology, 1986, Award of $250.
NIH Grant RO1-CA34461; Regulation of Natural Killer Cells; 5/1/83-11/30/87;
Co-Investigator; Direct Costs - $319,233/4.5yr.
American Cancer Institution Grant #IN-45; In Vivo Activation and Function of T Cells
Bearing γδ Receptors; 7/1/88-6/30/90; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $7,500/2yr.
Leukemia Society of America Scholar Award; Blastogenesis and Proliferation of Natural
Killer Cells; 12/1/86-11/30/91; Salary Award; Direct Costs - $216,000/5yr.
Genetics Institute, Inc.; Effects of mIL-12 on the Response to and Susceptibility to
Experimental Viral Infections; 10/12/92-1/11/93; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs
MacArthur Foundation Research Program, Brain, Behavior and Immunity Network
Sub-project; Consequences of Stress on Susceptibility to Viral Infections; 8/1/91-
12/31/94; Project Director; Direct Costs - $187,661/3.4yr.
NIH RO1-CA(AI)55726 (01-03)(+1yr); Control of NK & T Cells by TGF-ßs During Viral
Infection; 4/1/92-3/31/96; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $314,868/3yr.
NIH Grant U19-AI44644 (01-04); Transplantation Tolerance: Costimulation, Cytokines &
Chimerism; 9/1/98-8/31/02; Grant to Emory University School of Medicine (PI - C.
Larsen); Principal Investigator of Project Subcontract to Brown University; Total Costs
for Subcontract - $616,531/4yr.
NIH Grant RO1-MH47674 (04-12); Adrenal Steroid-Immune Interactions in Viral
Infections; 7/1/94-6/30/03; Grant to Emory University School of Medicine (PI - A.
Miller); Principal Investigator of Subcontract to Brown University; Total Costs for
Subcontract - $1,291,540/9yr.
NIH Grant RO1-CA(AI)41268 (01-18); Natural Killer Cell Growth and Development;
12/1/85-4/30/04; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $2,801,281/18yr.
NIH Grant P20 RR15578 (01-05); Center for Genetics and Genomics; 10/1/00-
8/31/05; COBRE Grant to Brown University (PI - J. Sedivy); Principal
Investigator of Project A - Characterization of Events Regulating the Balance Between
Resistance and Infection; Direct Costs for Project A - $913,000/5yr.
U.S. Dept. Education GAANN P200A000117 (1-3; 4-6); Ph.D. Training in Pathobiology of
Infectious Disease and Host Responses: A Multidisciplinary Program in Biology;
8/15/00-6/30/06 (extension through 6/30/07); Grant to Brown University Graduate
Program in Pathobiology (PI - N. Thompson); Research Director and Co-Principal
Investigator; Direct Costs - $459,000 + $371,535.
NIH Grant NCRR 1S1RR021051NIH; Shared Instrument Grant: BD FACSAria Flow Cytometer;
2007-08; (PI. L. Brossay) co-Principal Investigator; Direct Costs $402,975.
NIH Grant RO1-AI55677 (01-05); Type 1 IFN Function and Signaling in Immunity to
Viruses; 06/15/03-11/30/08 (with extension); Principal Investigator; Direct Costs -
NIH Grant RO1-CA(AI)41268 (19-23); Natural Killer Cell Growth and Development;
5/1/04-4/30/10; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $1,150,000/5yr.
NIH Grant R56-AI55677 (06 + 06A1); Type 1 IFN Function and Signaling in Immunity to
Viruses; 10/15/08-8/30/10; Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $537,956/2yr.
U.S. Dept. Education GAANN (1-5 2nd renewal); Ph.D. Training in Pathobiology of Infectious
Disease and Host Responses: A Multidisciplinary Program in Biology; 8/14/06-
8/13/11; Grant to Brown University Graduate Program in Pathobiology; Research Director
and Principal Investigator; Direct Costs - $380,016.
Immunology teaching to medical students in Medical Microbiology or in seminar courses to undergraduate and graduate students including Viral Immunology/Microbial Pathogenesis.
- Medical Microbiology (BI158)
- Viral Immunology (BI264)
- Dalod, M., and C.A. Biron. Immunoregulatory cytokine networks discovered and characterized during murine cytomegalovirus infections. Chapter 11, Volume 2. In: Second Edition CYTOMEGALOVIRUSES: From Molecular Pathogenesis to Intervention (2 volumes). M.J. Reddenhase, ed. Caister Academic Press, in press, 2013. (http://www.horizonpress.com/cmv2) (2013)
- Kallal, L.E., and C.A. Biron. Changing Partners at the dance: Variations in STAT concentrations for shaping cytokine function and immune responses to viral infections. JAK-STAT 2:1-10, 2013. Invited Review Article http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/jkst.23504 (2013)
- Mace, E.M., A.P. Hsu, L. Monaco-Shawver, G. Makedonas, J.B. Rosen, L. Dropulic, J.I. Cohen, E.P. Frenkel, J.C. Bagwell, J.L. Sullivan, C.A. Biron, C. Spalding, C.S. Zerbe, G. Uzel, S.M. Holland, and J.S. Orange. Mutations in GATA2 cause human NK cell deficiency with specific loss of the CD56BRIGHT subset. Blood, in press, 2013. Online in First Edition. (2013)
- Biron, C.A. Commentary: Yet another role for natural killer cells: Cytotoxicity in immune regulation and viral persistence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109:1814-1815, 2012. (2012)
- Lee, S.-H., M.F. Fragoso, and C.A. Biron. A novel mechanism bridging innate and adaptive immunity: IL-12 induction of CD25 to form high-affinity IL-2 receptors on NK cells. J. Immunol. 189:2712-2716, 2012. Cutting Edge Report (2012)
- Gil, M.P., M.J.Y. Ploquin, W.T. Watford, S.-H. Lee, K. Kim, X. Wang, Y, Kanno, J.J. O'Shea, and C.A. Biron. Regulating type 1 IFN effects in CD8 T cells during viral infections: changing STAT4 and STAT1 expression for function. Blood 120:3718-3728, 2012. (2012)
- Biron, C.A., and C.M. Rice, editors for the Special Issue on Innate Immunity in Current Opinion in Virology. "Innate Immunity: Trolling, Responding and Protecting against Viral Infections Editorial Overview". Curr. Opin. Virol. 1:443-446, 2011. (2011)
- Vidal, S.M., S.I. Khakoo, and C.A. Biron. Natural killer cell responses during viral infections: flexibility and conditioning of innate immunity by experience. Curr. Opin. Virol. 1:497-512, 2011. (2011)
- Mack, E.A., L.E. Kallal, D.A. Demers, and C.A. Biron. Type 1 interferon induction of natural killer cell gamma interferon production for defense during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. mBio 2 (4):e00169-11, 2011. (2011)
- Biron, C.A. Pearl - Expansion, maintenance and memory in NK and T cells during viral infections: responding to pressures for defense and regulation. PLoS Pathogen 6(3):e1000816, 2010. (2010)
- Lee, S.-H., and C.A. Biron. Here today - not gone tomorrow: roles for activating receptors in sustaining NK cells during viral infections. Eur. J. Immunol. 40:923-932, 2010. (2010)
- Biron, C.A. News and Views - More things in heaven and earth: defining innate and adaptive immunity. Nat. Immunol. 11:1080-1082, 2010. (2010)
- Biron, C.A. and A. Casadevall. On immunologists and microbiologists: ground zero in the battle for interdisciplinary knowledge. mBio 1(5):00260-10. doi:10.1128/mBio.00260-10, 2010. (2010)
- Miyagi, T., S.-H. Lee, and C.A. Biron. Intracellular staining for analysis of the expression and phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in NK cells. In: Second Edition Natural Killer Cell Protocols. K. Campbell, ed. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ, and Methods Mol Biol. 612:159-175, 2010. (2010)
- Lee, S.-H, K.-S. Kim, N. Fodil-Cornu, S.M. Vidal, and C.A. Biron. Activating receptors promote NK cell expansion for maintenance, IL-10 production, and CD8 T cell regulation during viral infection. J. Exp. Med. 206:2235-2251, 2009. (2009)
- Biron, C. (2009), "Type I interferons in innate immunity to viral infections", in Gordon, S. (ed.), Innate Immunity: Host recognition and response in health and disease, The Biomedical & Life Sciences Collection, Henry Stewart Talks Ltd, London (online at http://www.hstalks.com/?t=BL0612335-Biron) (2009)
- Biron, C.A. Type 1 Interferon Signaling In Shaping Cellular Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Viral Infection In: Cellular Signaling and Innate Immune Responses to RNA Viruses. Garcia-Sastre, A., Brasier, and S. Lemon, eds. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C. p. 137-153, 2008. (2008)
- Fodil-Cornu, N., S.-H. Lee, S. Belanger, A.P. Makrigiannis, C.A. Biron, R.M. Buller, and S.M. Vidal. Ly49h-deficient C57BL/6 mice: a new mouse cytomegalovirus-susceptible model remains resistant to unrelated pathogens controlled by the NK gene complex. J. Immunol. 181:6394-6405, 2008. (2008)
- Ryman, K.D, C.L. Gardner, K.C. Meier, C.A. Biron, R.E. Johnston, and W.B. Klimstra. Early restriction of alphavirus replication and dissemination contributes to age-dependent attenuation of systemic hyperinflammatory disease. J. Gen. Virol. 88:518-529, 2007. (2007)
- Biron, C.A., and G.C. Sen. Innate Immune Responses to Viral Infection. In: Fields Virology, Fifth Edition. D.M. Knipe, and P.M. Howley, eds. Walter Kluwer/Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. p. 249-278, 2007. (2007)
- Nathanson, N. and C.A. Biron. Innate Immunity. In: Viral Pathogenesis and¬ Immunity, Second Edition. N. Nathanson, ed. Academic Press, London, p. 59-71, 2007. (2007)
- Lee, S.-H., T. Miyagi, and C.A. Biron. Keeping natural killer cells in highly regulated antiviral warfare. Invited Opinion for Trends In Immunology 28:252-259, 2007. (2007)
- Ivanov, S., A.-M. Dragoi, X. Wang, C. Dallacosta, J. Louten, G. Musco, G. Sitia, G. Yap, Y. Wan, C.A. Biron, M. E. Bianchi, H. Wang, and W.-M. Chu. A novel role for HMGB1 in TLR9-mediated inflammatory responses to CpG- DNA. Blood 110:1970-1981, 2007. (2007)
- Miyagi, T., M.P. Gil, X. Wang, J. Louten, W.-M. Chu, and C.A. Biron. High basal STAT4 balanced by STAT1 induction to control type 1 interferon effects in natural killer cells. High basal STAT4 balanced by STAT1induction to control type 1 interferon effects in natural killer cells. J. Exp. Med. 204:2383-2396, 2007. (2007)
- Gil, M.P., R. Salomon, J. Louten, and C.A. Biron. Modulation of STAT1 protein levels, a mechanism shaping CD8 T cell responses in vivo. Blood 107:987-993, 2006. (2006)
- Garcia-Sastre, A., and C.A. Biron. Type 1 interferons and the virus-host relationship: A lesson in deténte. Science 312:879-882, 2006. (2006)
- Huang, D.R., F.-D. Shi, s. Jung, G.C. Pien, J. Wang, T.P. Salazar-Mather, T.T. He, J.T. Weaver, H.-G. Ljunggren, C.A. Biron, D.R. Littman, R.M. Ransohoff. The neuronal chemokine CX3CL1/fractalkin selectively recruits NK cells that modify experimental autoimmne encephalomyletis within the central nervous system. FASEB J. 20:896-905, 2006. (2006)
- Sjölin, H., S.H. Robbins, G. Bessou, Å. Hidmark, E. Tomasello, M. Johansson. H. Hall, F. Charifi, G.B. Karlsson Hedestam, C.A. Biron, K. Kärre, P. Höglund, E. Vivier, and M. Dalod. DAP12 signaling regulates palasmacytoid dendritic cell homeostasis and down-modulates their function during infection. J. Immunol. 177:2908-2916, 2006. (2006)
- Louten, J., N. van Rooijen, and C.A. Biron. Type 1 interferon deficiency in the absence of normal splenic architecture during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. J. Immunol. 177:3266-3272, 2006. (2006)
- Allman, D., M. Dalod, C. Asselin-Paturel, T. Delale, S.H. Robbins, G. Trinchieri, C.A. Biron,P. Kastner, and S. Chan. Ikoros is required for plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentiation. Blood 108:4025-4034, 2006. (2006)
- Delale, T., A. Paquin, C. Asselin-Paturel, M. Dalod, G. Brizard, E.E. Bates, P. Ksastner, S. Chan, S. Akira, A. Vicari, C.A. Biron, G. Trinchieri, and F. Brière. MyD88-dependent and -independent murine cytomegalovirus sensing for IFN-alpha release and initiation of immune responses in vivo. J. Immunol. 175:6723-6732, 2005. (2005)
- Silverman, M.N., B.D. Pearce, C.A. Biron, and A.H. Miller. Immune modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during viral infection. Viral Immunol. 18:41-78, 2005. (2005)
- Morra, M., R.A. Barrington, A.C. Abadia-Molina, S. Okamoto, A. Julien, C. Gullo, A. Kalsey, M.J. Edwards, G. Chen, R. Spolski, W.J. Leonard, B.T. Huber, P. Borrow, C.A. Biron, A.R. Satoskar, M.C. Carroll, and C. Terhorst. Defective B cell responses in the absence of SH2D1A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:4819-4823, 2005. (2005)
- Townsend, M., A.S. Weinmann, J. Matsuda, R. Salomon, P. Farnham, C.A. Biron, L. Gapin, and L.H. Glimcher. T-bet regulates the terminal maturation and homeostasis of NK and Va14iNKT cells. Immunity 20:477-494, 2004. (2004)
- Dalod, M., T. Hamilton, R. Salomon, T.P. Salazar-Mather, S. Henry, J.D. Hamilton, and C.A. Biron. Dendritic cell responses to early murine cytomegalovirus interfection: subset functional specialization and differential regulation by interferon alpha/beta. J. Exp. Med. 197:885-898, 2003. (2003)
- Biron, C.A., R. Salomon, and J.E. Durbin. Stats in Immune Responses to Viral Infections. In: Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (STATs). P.B. Segal, D.E. Levy, and T. Hirano, eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 381-397, 2003. (2003)
- Serbina, N.V., T.P. Salazar-Mather, C.A. Biron, W.A. Kuziel, and E.G. Pamer. TNF/iNOS producing dendritic cells (Tip-DC) mediate innate immune defense against bacterial infection. Immunity 19:59-70, 2003. (2003)
- Robbins, S.H., K.B. Nguyen, N. Takahashi, T. Mikamyama, C.A. Biron, and L. Brossay. Inhibitory functions of the killer cell lectin-like receptor G1 molecule during the activation of mouse NK cells. J. Immunol. 168:2585-2589, 2002. Cutting Edge Report (2002)
- Malmgaard, L., T.P. Salazar-Mather, C.A. Lewis, and C.A. Biron. Promotion of alpha/beta interferon induction during in vivo viral infections through alpha/beta interferon receptor/Stat1 system-dependent and -independent pathways. J. Virol. 76:4520-4525, 2002. (2002)
- Biron, C.A., K. Nguyen, and G. Pien. Innate Immune Responses to LCMV Infections: Natural Killer Cells and Cytokines. In: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology - Volume 263, Arenaviruses II; Biology and Pathogenesis. M.B.A. Oldstone, ed., Springer-Verlag, p. 7-27, 2002. (2002)
- Nguyen, K.B., W.T. Watford, R. Salomon, S.R. Hofmann, G.C. Pien, A. Morinobu, M. Gadina, J.J. O'Shea, and C.A. Biron. Critical role for STAT4 activation by type 1 interferons in the interferon-gamma response to viral infection. Science 297:2063-2066, 2002. (2002)
- Dalod, M., T.P. Salazar-Mather, L. Malmgaard, C. Lewis, C. Asselin-Paturel, F. Brière, G. Trinchieri and C.A. Biron. IFN-alpha/beta and IL-12 responses to viral infections: pathways regulating dendritic cell cytokine expression in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 195:517-528, 2002. (2002)
- Pien, G.C., K.B. Nguyen, L. Malmgaard, A.R. Satoskar, and C.A. Biron. A unique mechanism for innate cytokine promotion of T cell responses to viral infections. J. Immunol. 169:5827-5837, 2002. (2002)
- Nguyen, K.B., T.P. Salazar-Mather, M.Y. Dalod, J.B. Van Deusen, X.-q. Wei, F.Y. Liew, M.A. Caligiuri, J.E. Durbin and C.A. Biron. Coordinated and distinct roles for IFN-a/b, IL-12, and IL-15 regulation of NK cell responses to viral infections. J. Immunol. 169:4279-4287, 2002. (2002)
- Wu, C., K.B. Nguyen, G.C. Pien, N. Wang, C. Gullo, D. Howie, M.R. Sosa, M.J. Edwards, P. Borrows, A.R. Satoskar, A.H. Sharpe, C.A. Biron, and C. Terhorst. SAP controls T cell responses to virus and terminal differentiation of TH2 cells. Nature Immunology 2:410-414, 2001. (2001)
- Su, H.C., K.B. Nguyen, T.P. Salazar-Mather, M.C. Ruzek, M.Y. Dalod, and C.A. Biron. NK cell functions restrain T cell responses during viral infections. Eur. J. Immunol. 31:3048-3055, 2001. (2001)
- Doughty, L.A., K.B. Nguyen, J.E. Durbin, and C.A. Biron. A role for IFN-alpha/beta in virus infection-induced sensitization to endotoxin. J. Immunol. 166:2658-2664, 2001. (2001)
- Asselin-Paturel, C., A. Boonstra, M. Dalod, I. Durand, N. Yessaad, C. Dezutter-Dambuyant, A. Vicari, A. O'Garra, C. Biron, F. BriËre, and G. Trinchieri. Mouse type I interferon producing cells are immature antigen-presenting cells with plasmacytoid morphology. Provisionally accepted for publication in Nature Immunology 2:1144-1150, 2001. (2001)
- Biron, C.A., and G.C. Sen. Interferons and Other Cytokines. In: Fields Virology, Fourth Edition and Fundamental Virology, Fourth Edition. D.M. Knipe, P.M. Howley, D.E. Griffin, R.A. Lamb, M.A. Martin, B. Roizman, and S.E. Straus, eds., Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, p. 321-351, 2001. (2001)
- Pearce B.D., C.A. Biron, and A.H. Miller. Neuroendocrine-immune interactions during viral infections. In: Neuroviology, Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 56. M Buchmeier and I. Campbell, eds., Academic Press, New York, NY, p. 469-513, 2001. (2001)
- Miller, A.H., B.D. Pearce, M.C. Ruzek, and C.A Biron. Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system during viral infection: pathways for environmental effects on disease expression. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 7, The Endocrine System, Volume IV: Coping with the Environment - Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms. B. S. McEwen, ed., Oxford Press, New York, NY, p. 425-450, 2001. (2001)
- Biron, C.A., and L. Brossay. NK and NK T cells in innate defense against viral infections. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13:458-464, 2001. (2001)
- Biron, C.A., M. Dalod, and T.P. Salazar-Mather. Innate Immunity and Viral Infections. In: Immunity to Infections. S.H.E. Kaufmann, A. Sherr, and R. Ahmed, eds., American Society for Microbiology, p.139-160, 2001. (2001)
- Biron, C.A. Interferon alpha and beta as an immune regulators - a new look. Immunity 14:661-664, 2001. (2001)
- Asselin-Paturel, C., A. Boonstra, M. Dalod, I. Durand, N.Yessaad, C. Dezutter-Dambuyant, A. Vicari, A. O'Garra, C. Biron, F. Brière, and G. Trinchieri. Mouse type I interferon producing cells are immature antigen-presenting cells with plasmacytoid morphology. Nature Immunology 2:1144-1150, 2001. (2001)
- Pien, G.C., A.R. Satoskar, K. Takeda, S. Akira, and C.A. Biron. Selective IL-18 requirements for induction of compartmental IFN-gamma responses during viral infection. J. Immunol. 165:4787-4791, 2000. Cutting Edge Report (2000)
- Pien, G.C., and C.A. Biron. Compartmental differences in NK cell responsiveness to IL-12 during lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infections. J. Immunol. 164:994-1001, 2000. (2000)
- Nguyen, K.B., L.P. Cousens, L.A. Doughty, G.C. Pien, J.E. Durbin, and C.A. Biron. IFN-a/b-mediated inhibition and promotion of IFN-gamma: STAT1 resolves a paradox. Nature Immunology 1:70-76, 2000. (2000)
- Salazar-Mather, T.P., T.A. Hamilton, and C.A. Biron. A chemokine-to-cytokine-to-chemokine cascade critical in antiviral defense. J. Clin. Invest. 105:985-993, 2000. (2000)
- Nguyen, K.B., L.P. Cousens, L.A. Doughty, G.C. Pien, J.E. Durbin, and C.A. Biron. IFN-alpha/beta-mediated inhibition and promotion of IFN-gamma: STAT1 resolves a paradox. Nature Immunology 1:70-76, 2000. (2000)
- Karp, C.L., C.A. Biron, and D.N. Irani. Interferon-b in multiple sclerosis: is IL-12 suppression the key? Immunology Today 21:24-28, 2000. (2000)
- Biron, C.A., K.B. Nguyen, G.C. Pien, L.P. Cousens, and T.P. Salazar-Mather. Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines. Ann. Rev. Immunol.17:189-220, 1999. (1999)
- Biron, C.A. Initial and innate responses to virus infection - pattern setting in immunity or disease. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 2:374-381, 1999. (1999)
- Biron, C.A., K.B. Nguyen, G.C. Pien, L.P. Cousens, and T.P. Salazar-Mather. Natural killer cells in antiviral defense: function and regulation by innate cytokines. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 17:189-220, 1999. (1999)
- Biron, C.A. Role of early cytokines, including alpha and beta interferons (IFN-a/b), in innate and adaptive immune responses to viral infections. Seminars in Immunology 10:383-390, 1998. (1998)
- Ahmed, R,. and C.A. Biron. Immunity to viruses. In: Fundamental Immunology, Fourth Edition, W.E. Paul, ed., Lippincott-Raven Publishers, New York, NY, p. 1295-1334, 1998. (1998)
- Salazar-Mather, T.P., J.S. Orange, and C.A. Biron. Early murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection induces liver natural killer (NK) cell inflammation and protection through macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1a)-dependent pathways. J. Exp. Med. 187:1-14, 1998. (1998)
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