Faculty Profile: Donald Jackson, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1963

Donald Jackson
Donald Jackson, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 1963
Professor Emeritus of Medical Science
Bio Med Molecular Pharmacology, Physiology & Biotechnology
Work: +1 401-863-2373
The major goal of my research has been to understand the physiological mechanisms that adapt animals to stresses such as anoxia, acidosis, and variable temperature. I studied ectothermic vertebrates, such as freshwater turtles, that can survive long periods without oxygen and can function over a wide range of body temperatures. Studies have been carried out on whole animals, on isolated organs, and on cell preparations. My most recent research has sought to understand the mechanisms that permit a freshwater turtle to survive prolonged submergence, particularly during its winter hibernation when ice cover prevents breathing.

Biography

Professor Donald Jackson received his B.S. in Biology at Geneva college in 1959. Following the receipt of his Ph.D. in Physiology in 1963 from the University of Pennsylvania, he spent two years at Duke University as a Research Associate in Zoology. He returned to the University of Pennsylvania and served on the faculty there in Physiology until coming to Brown University as an Associate Professor in 1973. During his tenure at Brown, he has had visiting scientific appointments at the Max-Planck Institute for Experimental Medicine in Gottingen, Germany, at the CNRS at Strasbourg, France, at the National Science Foundation in Washington, DC, at The University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia, and at UNESP in Rio Claro, Brazil. He has also carried out field work at the Tortuguero Marine Turtle Research Station in Costa Rica.

Institutions

Bu

Research Description

I am no longer conducting laboratory research, but the major goal of my research was to understand the physiological mechanisms that adapt animals to stresses such as anoxia, acidosis, and variable temperature. The focus was on ectothermic vertebrates, such as freshwater turtles, that can survive long periods without oxygen and can function over a wide range of body temperatures. Studies were carried out on whole animals, on isolated organs, and on cell preparations. My most recent research sought to understand the mechanisms that permit a freshwater turtle to survive prolonged submergence, particularly during its winter hibernation when ice cover prevents breathing. Experiments considered the ecological situations in which the animals are either in anoxic or oxygenated water. Specific objectives were to understand the role of the shell and skeleton in acid buffering, to clarify the fate of lactate during recovery from anoxia, to explore the response of heart and heart muscle to graded hypoxia, and to define the mechanisms and limitations of aquatic gas exchange. My laboratory also had an interest in the comparative physiology of respiration and gas exchange. Work in this area included investigations of the metabolic cost of breathing in turtles, gas exchange and acid-base balance during torpor in the little brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, and the functional significance of aerial gas exchange in air-breathing fish.

Since my retirement, I have continued writing and teaching. My major activity has been writing a book entitled: Life in a Shell: A Physiologist's View of a Turtle, which has recently been published by Harvard University Press. I have also co-written two review articles and an article entitled: Academic genealogy and direct calorimetry: a personal account, which is currently IN PRESS in the American Journal of Physiology.

Grants and Awards

Fellow, AAAS, elected 1984
Fogarty Senior International Fellow, 10/1987 - 7/1988
Williams Lecture, Univ. of Akron, Department of Biology, 1992
August Krogh Distinguished Lectureship, American Physiological Society, Experimental Biology 99, 1999
Bernt Linzen Lecture, German Zoological Society, Bonn, 2000
William Hoar Lecture, Univ. of British Columbia, Department of Zoology, 2003
H.T. Hammel Distinguished Lecture in Human Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, 2006

Affiliations

American Physiological Society
Society of Integrative and Comparative Biology
AAAS (elected Fellow, 1985)
Sigma Xi

Funded Research

2001-2006, NSF, Physiological Mechanisms of Hypoxic Tolerance, PI, $419,000

Teaching Experience

Over the years I have been at Brown, I have taught in the medical physiology, the undergraduate physiology course (BI 0080), a freshman seminar course, Adaptation to the Environment, and Comparative Animal Physiology (BI 1180). Since my retirement in 2007, I have given guest lectures in Exercise Physiology (BI 1160) and Advanced Physiology (BI 2170) and continued to teach Comparative Animal Physiology.

Courses Taught

  • Adaptation to the Environment (BI0019.5)
  • Comparative Animal Physiology (BI0118)
  • Comparative Animal Physiology (BI 1180)
  • Principles of Physiology (BI0080)
  • Topics in Respiratory Physiology (BI0209)

Selected Publications

  • Jackson, D.C. (2011). Life in a Shell: A Physiologist's View of a Turtle. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. (2011)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2011). Academic genealogy and direct calorimetry: a personal account. Adv. Physiol. Educ. 35: 120-127. (2011)
  • Jackson, D.C. and G.R. Ultsch (2010). Physiology of hibernation under the ice by turtles and frogs. J. Exp. Zool. 313A: 311-327. (2010)
  • Milsom, W.K. and D.C. Jackson (2010). Gas exchange during hibernation. Comprehensive Physiology (online reviews of topics in physiology). (2010)
  • Warren, D.E. and D.C. Jackson (2008). Lactate metabolism in anoxic turtles: an integrative review. J. Comp. Physiol. B 178: 133-148. (2008)
  • Jackson, D.C., S.E. Taylor, V.S. Asare, D. Villarnovo, J.M. Gall, and S.A. Reese (2007). Comparative shell buffering properties correlate with anoxia tolerance in freshwater turtles. Am. J. Physiol. 292: R1008-R1015. (2007)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2007). Temperature and hypoxia in ectothermic tetrapods. J. Therm. Biol. 32: 125-133. (2007)
  • Davis, E.C. and D.C. Jackson (2007). Lactate uptake by skeletal bone in anoxic turtles, Trachemys scripta. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 146: 299-304. (2007)
  • Warren, D.E. and Jackson, D.C. (2007). Effects of temperature on anoxic submergence: skeletal buffering, lactate distribution and glycogen depletion in the turtle, Trachemys scripta. Am. J. Physiol. 293: R458-R467. (2007)
  • Warren, D.E., S.A. Reese, and D.C. Jackson (2006). The factors that limit survival of red-eared slider turtles, Trachemys scripta, during long-term anoxic submergence at 3ºC. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 79: 736-744 (2006)
  • Warren, D.E. and D.C. Jackson (2005). The role of mineralized tissue in the buffering of lactic acid during anoxia and exercise in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 1117-1124. (2005)
  • Bobb, V.T. and D.C. Jackson (2005). Effect of graded hypoxic and acidotic stress on contractile force of heart muscle from hypoxia-tolerant and hypoxia-intolerant turtles. J. Exp. Zool. 303A: 345-353. (2005)
  • Skovgaard, N., Warren, D.E., Jackson, D.C., and Wang, T. (2005). Endothelin-1 causes systemic vasodilatation in anaesthetised turtles (Trachemys scripta) through activation of ETB-receptors. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 3739-3746. (2005)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2004). Hypoxic hypometabolism and acid-base balance. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 141: 273-283. (2004)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2004). Surviving extreme lactic acidosis: the role of calcium lactate formation in the anoxic turtle. Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 144: 173-178. (2004)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2004). Overwintering in submerged turtles. In: Life in the Cold: Evolution, Mechanisms, Adaptation, and Application. Twelfth International Hibernation Symposium. Barnes, B.M. and Carey, H.V., eds., Biological Papers of the University of Alaska, number 27, Fairbanks, AK, pp. 317-327. (2004)
  • Warren, D.E. and D.C. Jackson (2004). Swimming effects on metabolic recovery from anoxia in the painted turtle. J. Exp. Biol. 207: 2705-2713. (2004)
  • Reese, S.A., G.R. Ultsch, and D.C. Jackson (2004). Lactate accumulation, glycogen depletion, and shell composition in hatchling turtles during simulated hibernation. J. Exp. Biol. 207: 2889-2895. (2004)
  • Ultsch, G.R., E.L. Brainerd, and D.C. Jackson (2004). Lung collapse among aquatic reptiles and amphibians during long-term diving. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 139: 111-115. (2004)
  • Reese, S.A., E.R. Stewart, C.E. Crocker, D.C. Jackson, and G.R. Ultsch (2004). Geographic variation of the physiological response to overwintering in the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 77: 619-630. (2004)
  • Jackson, D.C., Rauer, E.M., Feldman, R.A., and Reese, S.A. (2004). Avenues of extrapulmonary oxygen uptake in western painted turtles (Chrysemys picta bellii) at 10oC. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 139: 221-227. (2004)
  • Reese, S.A., D.C. Jackson, and G.R. Ultsch (2003). Hibernation in freshwater turtles: softshell turtles (Apalone spinifera) are the most intolerant of anoxia among northern North American species. J Comp Physiol B 173: 263-268 (2003)
  • Jackson, D.C. and S.F. Denniston (2003). Effect of experimental anemia on blood ion and acid-base status of turtles during submergence in aerated water at 3oC. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A 135: 597-603. (2003)
  • Jackson, D.C., D.V. Andrade, and A.S. Abe. (2003). Lactate Sequestration by Osteoderms of the Broad-Nose Caiman, Caiman latirostris, following capture and forced submergence. J. Exp. Biol. 206: 3601-3606. (2003)
  • Reese, S.A., D.C. Jackson, and G.R. Ultsch (2002). The physiology of overwintering in a turtle that occupies multiple habitats, the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina). Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 75: 432-438. (2002)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2002). Hibernating without oxygen: physiological adaptations of the painted turtle. J. Physiol. (London) 543.3: 731-737. (2002)
  • Jackson, D.C., T. Wang, P. Koldkjaer, and E.W. Taylor (2001). Lactate sequestration in the carapace of the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes during exposure in air. J. Exp. Biol. 204: 941-946. (2001)
  • Jackson, D.C., C.E. Crocker, and G.R. Ultsch (2001). Mechanisms of homeostasis during long-term diving and anoxia in turtles. (Linzen Lecture) Zoology. 103: 150-156. (2001)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2001). Anoxic survival and metabolic arrest in the turtle. Chap. 6 in: Life in Limbo: Molecular Mechanisms of Metabolic Arrest, K. Storey, ed., BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd., Oxford. Pp. 103-114. (2001)
  • Reese, S.A., C.E. Crocker, M.E. Carwile, D.C. Jackson, and G.R. Ultsch. (2001). The physiology of hibernation in common map turtles (Graptemys geographica). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. 130: 331-340. (2001)
  • Crocker, C.E., T.E. Graham, G.R. Ultsch, and D.C. Jackson (2000). Physiology of common map turtles (Graptemys geographica) hibernating in the Lamoille River, Vermont. J. Exp. Zool. 286: 143-148. (2000)
  • Jackson, D.C., C.E. Crocker, and G.R. Ultsch (2000). Bone and shell contribution to lactic acid buffering of submerged turtles Chrysemys picta bellii at 3oC. Am. J. Physiol. Regulatory Integrative Comp. Physiol. 278: R1564-R1571. (2000)
  • Crocker, C.E., R. Feldman, G.R. Ultsch, and D.C. Jackson (2000). Overwintering behavior and physiology of eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta picta) in Rhode Island. Can. J. Zool. 78: 936-942. (2000)
  • Jackson, D.C., A.L. Ramsey, J.M. Paulson, C.E. Crocker, and G.R. Ultsch (2000). Lactic acid buffering by bone and shell in anoxic softshell and painted turtles. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 73:290-297. (2000)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2000). Living without oxygen: lessons from the freshwater turtle. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. 125: 299-315. (2000)
  • Reese, S.A., C.E. Crocker, D.C. Jackson, and G.R. Ultsch (2000). The physiology of hibernation among painted turtles: the midland painted turtle (Chrysemys picta marginata). Respir. Physiol. 124: 43-50. (2000)
  • Jackson, D.C. (2000). How a turtle's shell helps it survive prolonged anoxic acidosis. News in Physiological Sciences 15: 181-185. (2000)