Faculty Profile: Steven Rasmussen, MD, MMS

Steven Rasmussen
Steven Rasmussen, MD, MMS
Professor and Chair
Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior
Work: 401-455-6209
My research is focused on the pathogenesis and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Funded projects include a ten-year longitudinal observational study of 400 patients with OCD, a multicenter genetic linkage study of OCD and neurosurgical approaches to treating refractory OCD patients using the gamma knife and deep brain stimulation. We also have a multicenter translational grant that combines electrophysiology, neuroanatomy, and imaging to explore the neurocircuitry of OCD.

Biography

Steven A. Rasmussen, MD, MMS is Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior and Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School. He has been repeatedly listed among the Best Doctor's in America as well as the most Highly Cited for Psychiatry.
Dr. Rasmussen was a member of the second graduating class of the PLME program and received his MMS and MD from Brown Medical School in 1977. He completed his residency in psychiatry at Yale in 1983. Following a two year obligation with the National Health Services Corps in North Kingdom Vermont, Dr. Rasmussen joined the Brown faculty and Butler Hospital in 1983. He is currently the Chair of the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University and was previously the Medical Director at Butler Hospital from 1998 - 2012. Dr. Rasmussen is an internationally recognized expert in the course and treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). More recently his primary research interest has been in neurosurgical approaches to intractable OCD and depression and the neurocircuitry of OCD. He is currently funded by four R01's from the NIMH including studies of the longitudinal course of OCD, neurosurgical approaches to treatment, understanding the neurocircuitry underlying DBS effects in OCD, and a genome wide association study of OCD. He is the author or coauthor of over 100 peer reviewed publications and has given many invited presentations on the subject of OCD around the world. He has been a leader in developing bridges between campus-based and hospital-based brain science faculty at Brown University.

Institutions

Bh

Research Description

Our group has been studying the efficacy and safety of gamma capsulotomy in the treatment of intractable OCD. 32 patients have now been operated on and followed for a minimum of one year and a maximum of five years. 13 of these patients had a two stage surgical procedure and 17 patients have had a single stage procedure. The first group of 15 patients received bilateral single doses of 180 Gray gamma irradiation to the anterior limb of the internal capsule. At an average of eight moths following the procedure, only one out of the 15 patients was much or very much improved on the CGI. There was no significant change in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) ratings. 13 of the 15 patients received a second stage procedure that was a bilateral lesion placed just ventral to the initial lesion in the coronal plane. Six out of the 15 patients were much to very much improved at one-year follow-up. Two of 15 patients had a small asymptomatic caudate infarction following the procedure. Other adverse events included headache and cerebral edema following the procedure. No adverse effect on personality or neuropsychologic testing was found. 17 additional patients have now been given two shots bilaterally in a single stage procedure to the anterior limb of the internal capsule. Follow-up at one year has shown that forty percent of patients appear to be much or very much improved on the CGI. The rate of improvement is faster with the double shot procedure than the staged procedure, but the incidence of cerebral edema is increased with the two shot procedure. One patient out of 32 has developed a probable mild frontal syndrome with apathy and amotivation. Additional data related to the safety and efficacy of this procedure in the treatment of intractable OCD will be discussed. In summary, forty percent of previously treatment-intractable patients appear to be significantly improved with gamma capsulotomy with minimal adverse effects.

The OCD Collaborative Genetics Group has completed a genome-wide linkage study in a large collection of pedigrees segregating OCD. The results are promising; four genomic regions were identified that are likely to include susceptibility genes and merit intensive follow-up. In addition to pursuing these regions in this proposal, we propose to extend our sample with the recruitment of additional families, using the identical criteria and assessment protocol, to replicate our findings and to identify new candidate regions. To accomplish this goal, we have expanded the Collaborative group to include two additional centers, the Universities of Florida and Minnesota, and propose to collect an additional 530 families (excluding 67 that are available now). A genome-wide linkage scan, using a panel of 10,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), will be conducted on these additional families to replicate the original findings and, using the entire sample, to identify additional genomic susceptibility regions. Simultaneously, a sample of triads (N = 550, affected proband and both parents) will be recruited and assessed to strengthen the power of association and linkage disequilibrium in the final phase of this proposal, which is to refine the regions further and identify susceptibility genes using fine-mapping and gene sequencing techniques. Analytic strategies, already in process, using the available clinical material to refine the definition of the phenotype, will be employed to inform the molecular approaches. The present group of academic centers has collaborated over the past five years with demonstrated ability to recruit and diagnose individuals with this disorder. The clinical and genotype data from the cases will be publicly available for OCD genetics research. The results of these analyses will guide future molecular strategies to identify genes involved in the pathogenesis of OCD.

The goal of this grant is to delineate the neural network and physiology underlying the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for OCD using a series of integrated translational experiments that involve: 1. functional neuroimaging in humans (aim 1), 2. tract tracing in nonhuman primates (aim 2), and 3. electrophysiology in rodents (aim 3). A better understanding of the underlying neural circuitry of psychiatric disorders is a key element for developing the next generation of effective treatments. The frontobasal ganglia circuit is implicated in several major psychiatric disorders, including OCD. Converging evidence focuses on the ventromedial prefrontal cortical-basal ganglia circuitry. In particular, correction of hyperactivity in orbital frontal cortex (OFC) is a common factor across effective pharmacological, behavioral, and neurosurgical therapies. Furthermore, our pilot studies using DBS, a proven therapy for intractable movement disorders, show that the most promising target for DBS for OCD is in the ventral anterior internal capsule (VC) and adjacent ventral striatum (VS). Importantly, the ventromedial prefrontal cortical-subcortical afferent and efferent projections course through and converge at this location. However, there are several specific pathways at this site that may modulate OFC activity. We will focus on two competing hypotheses: 1. that DBS acts primarily via fibers directly connecting the OFC with the thalamus (aims 1, 2.1, 3.1, and 3.2) and 2. that DBS indirectly modulates OFC activity primarily through its stimulation of the VS pathways (aims 1, 2.2, and 3.3). Furthermore, an additional goal of the experiments is to delineate other key structures and transmitters, most specifically dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5HT), that may be involved at different loci of DBS in the VS (aim 2.3).

Aim 1. Functional Neuroimaging in Humans: Aim 1 will delineate the brain activation profile associated with acute VC/VS DBS in OCD by using PET measures of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Initial treatment data suggest that stimulation at the two ventral contacts (#0 and #1) of the DBS electrode, corresponding with locations in VS and VC respectively, is associated with optimal therapeutic response. Preliminary PET data indicate that acute stimulation at the #0 contact alone is associated with activation of OFC, area 25, striatum, pallidum and thalamus.

1.1) will delineate the activation profile associated with acute DBS at contacts #0+1 vs. control conditions. We hypothesize that acute DBS at contacts #0+1 vs. DBS off (as well as vs. DBS on at contact #3, a dorsal stimulation control condition) will yield activation of OFC, area 24, area 25, striatum, insular cortex, pallidum, and medial thalamus.
1.2) will dissect out component contributions of individual contacts separately (#0 alone vs. off; #1 alone vs. off). We hypothesize that #0 vs. off will yield activation of OFC (medial area 11), area 25, ventral striatum, ventral pallidum, and medial thalamus. We hypothesize that #1 vs. off will yield activation of OFC (lateral area 11), area 24, insular cortex, central striatum, central pallidum and medial thalamus.
1.3) will test for significant correlations between brain activation during acute DBS and clinical outcome. We hypothesize that activation in OFC during acute DBS will be correlated with clinical response to chronic DBS.

Aim 2. Neuroanatomical studies in non-human primates. Aim 2 will test the hypothesis that DBS at different locations within the VC and VS will involve separate components of the ventromedial prefrontal cortical-subcortical pathways. Using anterograde tracer injections, we will determine the course taken by fibers from different orbital and medial prefrontal and thalamic regions at three different sites (two at different dorso/ventral locations within the main VC and one in the ventral VS). A three-dimensional model will be created to illustrate which fiber bundles are affected at different DBS points. Finally, since DA and 5HT fibers ascend through this forebrain region and their terminal distributions vary in different regions of prefrontal cortex, aim 2.3 will focus on the organization and position of these ascending fibers.

2.1) will delineate the pathways that pass through two different loci of the VC. We predict that sites in the VC connect areas 24 and lateral OFC (lateral area 11, area 13, and 12) to specific thalamic and subthalamic regions.
2.2) will delineate both the pathways that pass through, and those that terminate within, the VS. We predict that fiber bundles embedded within the VS carry ascending and descending connections of areas 25 and medial OFC (medial area 11, 14, and 13a/b), including connections with the amygdala, hypothalamus, and midline thalamic n. Furthermore, fibers that terminate in the VS, in addition to those originating in prefrontal regions, will also include ascending fibers from the amygdala, thalamus, ventral tegmental area, and dorsal raphe n.
2.3) will identify the organization of DA and 5HT fibers at each part of the network. Using material from Aim 2.1 and 2.2, sections will be doubled-labeled for DA and 5HT immunohistochemistry to determine their course through the VC and VS as well as the relationship between their cortical terminal fields and ascending pathways from thalamus and amygdala.

Aim 3: Electrophysiological studies of DBS in a rat model. Aim 3 will determine which candidate pathway (direct, via the thalamus; or indirect, via the VS and ventral pallidum) activated during DBS primarily modulates OFC activity patterns. We will examine the impact of stimulation within a site that is homologous to the VC/VS of primates (i.e., the core of the accumbens) on the electrophysiological activity of OFC output neurons. The functional hypothesis is that DBS affects OFC as a consequence of repetitive stimulation, and this occurs via induction of LTP within either the OFC-medial dorsal thalamus (MD) pathway or the OFC-accumbens pathway. We plan to evaluate this by examining the effects of high- versus low-frequency stimulation within the core of the nucleus accumbens on baseline and stimulation-evoked changes in population activity of layer-three and layer-five pyramidal neurons within the OFC, and how this response is affected by selective elimination of alternate pathways.

3.1) will transect OFC pathways to the caudal to the stimulation site to evaluate the contribution of OFC-MD afferents on changes in OFC activity.
3.2) will transect OFC pathways rostral to the stimulation site to evaluate the contribution of OFC neuron antidromic activation to changes in OFC activity.
3.3) will use ibotenic acid lesions of nucleus accumbens neurons to evaluate the contribution of accumbens efferent pathways

By delineating the effects of stimulation on individual pathways likely to be involved in DBS, these experiments will provide a critical foundation for examining how modulation of activity within these pathways may ultimately lead to novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. The long-term goal of this line of investigation is to understand the mechanisms by which specific circuits are likely to play a primary role in the therapeutic response and to use this information to optimize treatments.

The overall goal of this proposal is to complete the first definitive controlled trial of a neurosurgical procedure for a severe psychiatric illness. Our preliminary data shows promising therapeutic effects of DBS in the treatment of refractory OCD. The target stimulation site, the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS), was based on ten years of our preliminary work in lesion and DBS procedures for OCD. In addition to our empirical data there is a well-defined theoretical rationale, as the VC/VS contains neuronal connections consistently implicated in OCD. In contrast to lesions, DBS is reversible and adjustable and has been refined during approved use in over 30,000 patients worldwide for medically intractable Parkinson's disease and tremor. In six years of preliminary work we have refined the surgical targeting, stimulation parameters, and patient selection, permitting the design of a definitive trial. Collection of definitive controlled data is the essential next step in the development of DBS for OCD as well as for other psychiatric indications such as severe, intractable depression. This therapy offers potential relief to thousands afflicted with otherwise untreatable illness.

We will use a parallel controlled design to compare effects of three months of double-masked sham versus active DBS on OCD severity. We propose a five-year study in order to gather crucial long-term effectiveness and tolerability data. A total of 45 patients (six per year in years one through four will be enrolled at three sites. The primary efficacy measure will be the YBOCS. We will also assess effects on comorbid depression, functioning, and quality of life, as well as potential adverse effects in multiple domains. Patients will have positron emission tomography (PET) scans at baseline and after three months of DBS, to test hypotheses that 1) frontobasal brain metabolism will change with response, and 2) frontobasal metabolism before surgery will predict response. Our specific aims are to determine the following:

1. Efficacy of DBS in OCD: To determine the effects of three months of masked VC/VS stimulation on OCD symptoms, functioning, and quality of life in patients with treatment-resistant OCD compared to sham stimulation. The primary working hypotheses for Aim 1 are: A) three months of DBS using the technique developed in our pilot work will result in improvement in OCD and in global functioning defined as a 35% or greater YBOCS score decrease plus a minimum GAF score of 50, and B) response will persist with open DBS for one to four years. The secondary working hypotheses for Aim 1 are: A) compared to sham stimulation, three months of blinded active DBS will be associated with improvements in quality of life on the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q); and B) these benefits will persist during one to four years of open stimulation.

2. Safety and Tolerability of Chronic DBS in Intractable OCD: To obtain comprehensive data on adverse effects including changes in personality, neuropsychological function, psychiatric symptoms, and neurological status, and other potential adverse effects. The neuropsychological battery will emphasize features of cognition, personality, and behavior attributed to the frontobasal networks that we expect to modulate. The working hypothesis for Aim 2 is that implantation and chronic DBS will have an adverse effect profile superior to that in our own prospective study of gamma knife capsulotomy for refractory OCD assessed cumulatively at 12 months.

3. PET neuroimaging predictors of response and changes with chronic treatment. To determine patterns of brain metabolism at presurgical baseline that predict response to DBS and to determine changes in metabolism after successful DBS. The working hypotheses for Aim 3: A) at presurgical baseline, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in corticobasal regions implicated in OCD pathophysiology (orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, and midline thalamus) will predict the degree of eventual response to chronic DBS, and B) that three months of chronic DBS will be associated with metabolic reductions in these same regions.

We propose to continue the Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study (BLOCS), a unique, naturalistic, prospective study of 400 subjects whose primary reason for seeking treatment was OCD, for an additional five years of follow-up. This will enable us to obtain a minimum of seven years of follow-up on all subjects and to incorporate new assessments and data analysis methods in order to address important unanswered questions while developing a comprehensive picture of the longitudinal course and outcome of OCD. It will provide important new and clinically relevant information about prognosis, rates of remission and relapse, predictors of remission and relapse and treatment received that will in turn have significant implications for public health policy.

Our specific aims are to (1) determine the course, stability, and outcome of selected OCD phenotypes (2) collect comprehensive treatment data on the long term effects of SRIs, augmenting medications, and cognitive behavior therapy (3) to determine the patterns of course and outcome of a clinical sample of children and adolescents with OCD and compare them to a clinical sample of adults with OCD. Subjects will be evaluated at one-year intervals with instruments that obtain detailed information on symptom status and severity, diagnostic status, treatment received, psychosocial functioning, and other domains. Since the last submission we have added new assessments that measure stressful life events, underlying mood- and anxiety-related traits, and symptom severity independent of diagnosis and functioning; we have also incorporated new data analysis methods in order to answer important questions about OCD. To have sufficient statistical power to test our hypotheses, five more years of prospective observation are needed.

The BLOCS data set is unique in its large number of subjects, comprehensiveness of assessment, and length of prospective follow-up. This proposal will allow us to more completely investigate the aims and hypotheses of the previously funded grant and to add new, previously unexplored aims and hypotheses generated by findings from BLOCS and other investigators during the past four years. Continuation of BLOCS is expected to shed new light on clinically and theoretically important, innovative questions about an understudied major psychiatric disorder that have not been adequately addressed by previous research.

Grants and Awards

Sigma Xi, 1984
Biologic Science Training Fellowship Yale University School of Medicine, 1979-1981
Listed in the Best Doctors in America: 1999 - 2013
Listed in Highly Cited as Top 25 Most Cited for Psychiatry
Exemplary Psychiatrist Award: NAMI
Member NIMH Clinical Psychopathology Review Committee 1996-2001
Pioneer in Radiosurgery Award Leksell Society 2006
Faculty Mentor Award Department of Psychiatry 2008

Affiliations

Society for Neuroscience
American Psychiatric Association

Funded Research

ACTIVE

RO-1 MH60218 (PI Steven Rasmussen) 8/1/06- 8/1/11
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) $400,120 (initial period direct costs)
Longitudinal Prospective Study of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
This study investigates the longitudinal course of obsessive compulsive disorder with a focus on diagnostic status, symptom severity, treatment utilization, psychosocial impairment, and quality of life over time.

R01 MH076179-01A1 7/1/06 – 6/30/11
NIMH $700,038 (Year 1 Direct Costs)
Controlled Trial of DBS for OCD
A multicenter controlled study of deep brain stimulation of the internal capsule for intractable OCD, including FDG-PET imaging pre- and post-DBS.

R0-1 MH073111-01A1 (S. Haber, PI) 12/1/2005 – 11/31/2010
NIMH / National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) $55,922 (Year 1 Direct Costs)
Neural Networks in OCD
This translational study aims to understand the mechanisms of therapeutic action of deep brain stimulation in OCD using neuroimaging in patients, neuroanatomy in primates, and electrophysiology in rodents.

5/01/06-5/01/07
Medtronics $105,000
A Pilot Study of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Capsule for Treatment of Intractable OCD
This study is an initial pilot study of the efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of patients with intractable obsessive compulsive disorder.

5/01/06-5/01/07
Medtronics $120,000
A Pilot Study of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Capsule for Treatment Intractable Depression
This study is an initial pilot study of the efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation in the treatment of patients with intractable depression.

Follow-Up Study of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Role in Project: Principal Investigator
Type of Grant: R01
Funding Source: National Institute of Mental Health
Years Funded: January 2012-December 2015
Total Direct Costs: $1,200,000

Title: Neurocircuitry Underlying DBS Effects in OCD: A Window into Mechanisms
of Action
Role in Project: Site PI
Type of Grant: P50
Funding Source: University of Rochester, NIMH
Years Funded: 2009-2014
Total Direct Costs: $10,588,848

Title: Imaging White Matter Maturation during Healthy Neurodevelopment
Role in Project: Co-Investigator
Type of Grant: R01
Funding Source: NIMH
Years Funded: 2009-2014
Total Direct Costs: $1,600,000

Title: Testing the Efficacy of an Exercise Intervention for Patients with OCD
Role in Project: Co-Investigator
Type of Grant: R01
Funding Source: NIMH
Years Funded: 2010-2014
Total Direct Costs: $345,068

Rehabilitation Research and Development Center of Excellence "Center for Neurorestoration and Neurotechnology"
Role in Project: Co-Investigator
Type of Grant: RR&D Core Funding
Years Funded: June 2012-May 2017
Direct Costs: $4,500,000

Selected Publications

  • 125) Grant, Jon E., Maria C. Mancebo, Eric Weinhandl, Brian L. Odlaug, Jane L. Eisen, and Steven A. Rasmussen. "Longitudinal course of pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder." International clinical psychopharmacology 28, no. 4 (2013): 200-205 (2013)
  • (2013)
  • 121)Kubu CS, Malone DA, Chelune G, Malloy P, Rezai AR, Frazier T, Machado A, Rasmussen SA, Friehs G, Greenberg BD. Neuropsychological Outcome after Deep Brain Stimulation in Ventral Capsule/Ventral Striatum for Highly Refractory OCD or Major Depression. Tereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, in press, 1.2013 122) Porton B, Greenberg BD, Askland K, Serra LM, gesmonde J, Rudnick G, Ramussen SA, Kao H-T. Isoforms of the Neuronal Glutamate Transporter Gene, SLC1A1/EAAC1, Negatively Modulate Glutamate Uptake: Relevance to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Translational Psychiatry 2013 (In press) (2013)
  • 124) Rasmussen, Steven A., Jane L. Eisen, and Benjamin D. Greenberg. "Toward a Neuroanatomy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Revisited." Biological psychiatry 73.4 (2013): 298-299 (2013)
  • 123) Eisen, Jane L., Nicholas J. Sibrava, Christina L. Boisseau, Maria C. Mancebo, Robert L. Stout, Anthony Pinto, and Steven A. Rasmussen. "Five-year course of obsessive-compulsive disorder: predictors of remission and relapse." The Journal of clinical psychiatry 74, no. 3 (2013): 233-239 (2013)
  • VanderWeele J, Samuels J, Greenberg BD, McCracken JT, Knowles JA, Fyer AJ, Rauch SL, Riddle MA, Grados MA, Bienvenu OJ, Cullen B, Wang Y, Shugart YY, J Piacentini J,Rasmussen S, Nestadt G, Murphy DL, Cook EH, Pauls DL, Hanna GH, Mathews CA. Meta-Analysis of Association between Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and the 3' Region of Neuronal Glutamate Transporter SLC1A1. Neuropsychiatric Genetics, in press, 11.2012 (2012)
  • 118) Spofford, Christopher M., Nicole CR McLaughlin, Fred Penzel, Steven A. Rasmussen, and Benjamin D. Greenberg. "OCD behavior therapy before and after gamma ventral capsulotomy: Case report." Neurocase ahead-of-print (2012): 1-4 (2012)
  • 116) Strong, D. R., Haber, S. N., Tyrka, A. R., Bernier, J. A., Rasmussen, S. A., & Greenberg, B. D. Reversible increase in smoking after withdrawal of ventral capsule/ventral striatum Deep Brain Stimulation in a depressed smoker. Journal of Addiction Medicine 2012 Mar;6(1):94-5 (2012)
  • 114) McGuire JF, Storch EA, Lewin AB, Price LH, Ramsussen SA, Goodman WK. The role of avoidance in the phenomenology of obsessive –compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;53(2):187-94. Epub 2011 May 6 (2012)
  • 115) Abrantes AM, MCLaughlin,N, Greenberg BD, Strong DR, Riebe D, Mancebo, Rasmussen S, Desaulniers J, Brown RA. Design and rationale for a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of aerobic exercise for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Mental Health and Physical Activity (In Press 2012) (2012)
  • 117) Abrantes, Ana M., Nicole McLaughlin, Benjamin D. Greenberg, David R. Strong, Deborah Riebe, Maria Mancebo, Steven Rasmussen, Julie Desaulniers, and Richard A. Brown. "Design and rationale for a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of aerobic exercise for patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder." Mental health and physical activity (2012) (2012)
  • 119) Phillips, Katharine A., Anthony Pinto, Ashley S. Hart, Meredith E. Coles, Jane L. Eisen, William Menard, and Steven A. Rasmussen. "A comparison of insight in body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive–compulsive disorder." Journal of psychiatric research (2012) (2012)
  • 112) Sibrava NJ, Boisseau CL, Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental rituals in a longitudinal clinical sample of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Oct 3;28(10):892-8. doi: 10.1002/da.20869. Epub 2011 Aug 4. PMID: 21818825 (2011)
  • 109) Samuels J, Wang Y, Riddle MA, Greenberg BD, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Grados MA, Knowles JA, Piacentini J, Cullen B, Bienvenue OJ 3rd, Rasmussen SA, Geller D, Pauls DL, Liang KY, Shugart YY, Nestadt G. Comprehensive family-based association study of the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatry Genet 2011 Jun; 156B(4):472-7. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.31184. Epub 2011 Mar 28. PMID:21445956 (2011)
  • 107) Mroczkowski MM, Goes FS, Riddle MA, Grados MA, Joseph Bienvenu O 3rd, Greenberg BD, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Knowles JA, Piacentini J, Cullen B, Rasmussen SA, Geller DA, Pauls DL, Liang KY, Nestadt G, Samuels JF. Depress Anxiety. 2011 Mar; 28(3):256-62 (2011)
  • 106) Voyiaziakis E, Evgrafov O, Li D, Yoon HJ, Tabares P, Samuels J, Wang Y, Riddle MA, Grados MA, Bienvenu OJ, Shugart YY, Liang KY, Greenberg BD, Rasmussen SA, Murphy DL, Wendland JR, McCracken JT, Piacentini J, Rauch SL, Pauls DL, Nestadt G, Fyer AJ, Knowles JA. Association of SLC6A4 variants with obsessive-compulsive disorder in a large multicenter US family study. Mol Psychiatry. 2011 Jan;16(1):108-20 (2011)
  • 108) Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Sibrava N, Dyck IR & Rasmussen SA. Patient utilization of cognitive-behavioral therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder. Behav Ther. 2011 Sep;42(3):399-412. Epub 2011 Mar 5. PMID: 21658523 (2011)
  • 111) Lehman JF, Greenberg BD, McIntyre CC, Rasmussen SA, Haber SN. Rules ventral prefrontal cortical axons use to reach their targets: implications for diffusion tensor imaging tractography and deep brain stimulation for psychiatric illness. J Neurosci. 2011 Jul 13;31(28):10392-402 (2011)
  • 110) Bienvenu OJ, Samuels JF, Wuyek LA, Liang KY, Wang Y, Grados MA, Cullen BA, Riddle MA, Greenberg BD, Rasmussen SA, Fyer AJ, Pinto A, Rauch SL, Pauls DL, McCracken JT, Piacentini J, Murphy DL, Knowles JA, Nestadt G. Is obsessive-compulsive disorder an anxiety disorder, and what, if any, are spectrum conditions? A family study perspective. Psychol Med. 2011 May 13:1-13. [Epub ahead of print] (2011)
  • 113) Nestadt G, Wang Y, Grados MA, Riddle MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Piacentini J, Geller D, Pauls D, Bienvenu OJ, Chen Y, Liang KY, Goes FS, Maher B, Pulver AE, Shugart YY, Valle D, Samuels JF, Chang YC. Homeobox genes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2011 Nov 16. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.b.32001. [Epub ahead of print] PMID:22095678 (2011)
  • 105) Storch EA, Larson MJ, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Murphy TK, Goodman WK. Psychometric analysis of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale Second Edition Symptom Checklist. J Anxiety Disord. 2010 Aug;24(6):650-6 (2010)
  • 103) Wang Y, Adamczyk A, Shugart YY, Samuels JF, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Bienvenu OJ, Riddle M, Liang KY, Valle D, Wang T, Nestadt G. A screen of SLC1A1 for OCD-related alleles. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010 Mar 5;153B(2):675-9 (2010)
  • 101) Grant JE, Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Impulse-control disorders in children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2010 Jan 30;175(1-2): (2010)
  • 102) Goodman WK, Foote KD, Greenberg BD, Ricciuti N, Bauer R, Ward H, Shapira NA, Wu SS, Hill CL, Rasmussen SA, Okun MS. Deep brain stimulation for intractable obsessive compulsive disorder: pilot study using a blinded, staggered-onset design. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Mar 15;67(6):535-42 (2010)
  • 104) Storch EA, Rasmussen SA, Price LH, Larson MJ, Murphy TK, Goodman WK. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale--Second Edition. Psychol Assess. 2010 Jun;22(2):223-32 (2010)
  • 19) Eisen JL, Yip AG, Mancebo MC, Pinto A, Rasmussen SA. Phenomenology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Textbook of Anxiety Disorders, 2nd ed. Stein DJ, Hollander E, Rothbaum BO (eds). APA Press, Washington, DC, 2010 (2010)
  • 100) Lopes AC, Greenberg BD, Norén G, Canteras MM, Busatto GF, de Mathis ME, Taub A, D'Alcante CC, Hoexter MQ, Gouvea FS, Cecconi JP, Gentil AF, Ferrão YA, Fuentes D, de Castro CC, Leite CC, Salvajoli JV, Duran FL, Rasmussen S, Miguel EC. Treatment of resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder with ventral capsular/ventral striatal gamma capsulotomy: a pilot prospective study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009, Fall. 21(4):381-92 (2009)
  • 98) Shugart YY, Wang Y, Samuels JF, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Hoehn-Saric R, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Bienvenu OJ, Riddle MA, Liang KY, Nestadt G. A family-based association study of the glutamate transporter gene SLC1A1 in obsessive-compulsive disorder in 378 families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Sep 5;150B(6):886-92 (2009)
  • 97) Bienvenu OJ, Wang Y, Shugart YY, Welch JM, Grados MA, Fyer AJ, Rauch SL, McCracken JT, Rasmussen SA, Murphy DL, Cullen B, Valle D, Hoehn-Saric R, Greenberg BD, Pinto A, Knowles JA, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Liang KY, Willour VL, Riddle M, Samuels JF, Feng G, Nestadt G. Sapap3 and pathological grooming in humans: Results from the OCD collaborative genetics study. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Jul 5;150B(5): (2009)
  • 95) Pinto A, Greenberg BD, Murphy DL, Nestadt G, Rasmussen SA. Using individual items to clarify OCD symptom structure: the case for five factors. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jun;166(6):728-9; author reply 729-31 (2009)
  • 93) Malone DA Jr, Dougherty DD, Rezai AR, Carpenter LL, Friehs GM, Eskandar EN, Rauch SL, Rasmussen SA, Machado AG, Kubu CS, Tyrka AR, Price LH, Stypulkowski PH, Giftakis JE, Rise MT, Malloy PF, Salloway SP, Greenberg BD. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum for treatment-resistant depression. Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Feb 15;65(4):267-75 (2009)
  • 92) Wang Y, Samuels JF, Chang YC, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Hoehn-Saric R, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Bienvenu OJ, Riddle M, Shugart YY, Liang KY, Nestadt G. Gender differences in genetic linkage and association on 11p15 in obsessive-compulsive disorder families. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2009 Jan 5;150B(1):33-40 (2009)
  • 94) Mancebo MC, Grant JE, Pinto A, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Substance use disorders in an obsessive compulsive disorder clinical sample. J Anxiety Disord. 2009 May;23(4):429-35 (2009)
  • 96) Nestadt G, Di CZ, Riddle MA, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA, Cullen B, Pinto A, Knowles JA, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Bienvenu OJ, Wang Y, Liang KY, Samuels JF, Roche KB. Obsessive-compulsive disorder: subclassification based on co-morbidity. Psychol Med. 2009 Sep;39(9):1491-501 (2009)
  • 99) Taub A, Lopes AC, Fuentes D, D'Alcante CC, de Mathis ME, Canteras MM, Siviero M, Greenberg BD, Norén G, Batistuzzo M, Hoexter MQ, Cecílio S, Savage C, Rasmussen S, Miguel EC. Neuropsychological outcome of ventral capsular/ventral striatal gamma capsulotomy for refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot study. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Fall. 21(4):393-7 (2009)
  • 18) Eisen JL, Mancebo MC, Chiappone KL, Pinto A, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Chapter in: Clinical Handbook of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Related Problems. Abramowitz J, McKay D, Taylor, S (eds)., The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2008 (2008)
  • 91) Samuels JF, Bienvenu OJ, Pinto A, Murphy DL, Piacentini J, Rauch SL, Fyer AJ, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Cullen B, Riddle MA, Rasmussen SA, Pauls DL, Liang KY, Hoehn-Saric R, Pulver AE, Nestadt G.Sex-specific clinical correlates of hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther. 2008 Sep;46(9):1040-6 (2008)
  • 89) Mancebo MC, Pinto A, Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Development of the Treatment Adherence Survey-patient version (TAS-P) for OCD. J Anxiety Disord. 2008;22(1):32-43 (2008)
  • 87) Coles ME, Pinto A, Mancebo MC, Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. OCD with comorbid OCPD: a subtype of OCD? J Psychiatr Res. 2008 Mar;42(4):289-96 (2008)
  • 86) Mancebo MC, Greenberg B, Grant JE, Pinto A, Eisen JL, Dyck I, Rasmussen SA. Correlates of occupational disability in a clinical sample of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2008 Jan-Feb;49(1):43-50 (2008)
  • 88) Greenberg BD, Gabriels L, Malone D, Rezai AR, Friehs G, Okun, MS, Shapira NA, Foote KD, Cosyns PR, Kubu, CS, Malloy PF, Salloway SP, Giftakis JE, Rise MT, Machado AG, Baker KB, Stypulkowski PH, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Nuttin BJ. Deep brain stimulation of the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum for obsessive-compulsive disorder: worldwide experience. Mol Psychiatry. 2008 May (2008)
  • 90) Pinto A, Greenberg BD, Grados MA, Bienvenu III OJ, Samuels JF, Murphy DL, Hasler G, Stout RL, Rauch SL, Shugart YY, Pauls DL, Knowles JA, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Piacentini J, Wang Y, Willour Virginia L, Cullen B, Liang K-Y, Hoehn-Saric R, Riddle MA, Rasmussen SA, Nestadt G. Further development of YBOCS dimensions in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study: Symptoms vs. categories. Psychiatry Research. 2008. Jul 15;160(1):83-93 (2008)
  • 17) Pinto A, Eisen JL, Mancebo MC, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder. Chapter in: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Subtypes and Spectrum Conditions. Abramowitz, J, McKay, Dean and Taylor, S (eds). Elsevier, New York, 2008 (2008)
  • 85) Phillips KA, Pinto A, Menard W, Eisen JL, Mancebo M, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive-compulsive disorder versus body dysmorphic disorder: a comparison study of two possibly related disorders. Depress Anxiety. 2007;24(6):399-409 (2007)
  • 83) Didie ER, Walters MM, Pinto A, Menard W, Eisen JL, Mancebo M, Rasmussen SA, Phillips KA. A comparison of quality of life and psychosocial functioning in obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Jul-Sep;19(3):181-6. Erratum in: Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Oct-Dec;19(4):331 (2007)
  • 81) Brown RA, Abrantes AM, Strong DR, Mancebo MC, Menard J, Rasmussen SA, Greenberg BD. A pilot study of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for obsessive compulsive disorder. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2007 Jun;195(6):514-20 (2007)
  • 79) Hasler G, Pinto A, Greenberg BD, Samuels J, Fyer AJ, Pauls D, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Piacentini J, Riddle MA, Rauch SL, Rasmussen SA, Willour VL, Grados MA, Cullen B, Bienvenu OJ, Shugart YY, Liang KY, Hoehn-Saric R, Wang Y, Ronquillo J, Nestadt G, Murphy DL; OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. Familiality of factor analysis-derived YBOCS dimensions in OCD-affected sibling pairs from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar 1;61(5):617-25 (2007)
  • 78) Samuels J, Shugart YY, Grados MA, Willour VL, Bienvenu OJ, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Wang Y, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, Piacentini J, Pauls DL, Cullen B, Rasmussen SA, Hoehn-Saric R, Valle D, Liang KY, Riddle MA, Nestadt G. Significant linkage to compulsive hoarding on chromosome 14 in families with obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Mar;164(3):493-9 (2007)
  • 80) Samuels JF, Bienvenu OJ 3rd, Pinto A, Fyer AJ, McCracken JT, Rauch SL, Murphy DL, Grados MA, Greenberg BD, Knowles JA, Piacentini J, Cannistraro PA, Cullen B, Riddle MA, Rasmussen SA, Pauls DL, Willour VL, Shugart YY, Liang KY, Hoehn-Saric R, Nestadt G. Hoarding in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study. Behav Res Ther. 2007 Apr; 45(4):673-86 (2007)
  • 82) Pinto A, Eisen JL, Mancebo MC, Greenberg BD, Stout RL, Rasmussen SA. Taboo thoughts and doubt/checking: a refinement of the factor structure for obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Psychiatry Res. 2007 Jun 30;151(3):255-8 (2007)
  • 84) Grant JE, Mancebo MC, Pinto A, Williams KA, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Late-onset obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity. Psychiatry Res. 2007 Jul 30;152(1):21-7 (2007)
  • 77) Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Pinto A, Greenberg BD, Dyck IR, Rasmussen SA. The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: treatments received and patient impressions of improvement. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;67(11):1713-20 (2006)
  • 76) Greenberg BD, Malone DA, Friehs GM, Rezai AR, Kubu CS, Malloy PF, Salloway SP, Okun MS, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA. Three-year outcomes in deep brain stimulation for highly resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2006 Nov;31(11):2384-93 (2006)
  • 74) Eisen JL, Mancebo MA, Pinto A, Coles ME, Pagano ME, Stout R, Rasmussen SA. Impact of obsessive-compulsive disorder on quality of life. Compr Psychiatry. 2006 Jul-Aug;47(4):270-5 (2006)
  • 72) Pinto A, Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Pagano ME, Rasmussen SA. The Brown Longitudinal Obsessive Compulsive Study: clinical features and symptoms of the sample at intake. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 May;67(5):703-11 (2006)
  • 71) Ninan PT, Koran LM, Kiev A, Davidson JR, Rasmussen SA, Zajecka JM, Robinson DG, Crits-Christoph P, Mandel FS, Austin C. High-dose Sertraline strategy for non-responders to acute treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a multicenter double-blind trial. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Jan;67(1):15-22 (2006)
  • 73) Eisen JL, Coles ME, Shea MT, Pagano ME, Stout RL, Yen S, Grilo CM, Rasmussen SA. Clarifying the convergence between obsessive compulsive personality disorder criteria and obsessive compulsive disorder. J Personal Disord. 2006 (3):294-305 (2006)
  • 75) Grant JE, Pinto A, Gunnip M, Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Sexual obsessions and clinical correlates in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2006 Sep-Oct;47(5):325-9 (2006)
  • 70) Mancebo MC, Eisen JL, Grant JE, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive compulsive personality disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: clinical characteristics, diagnostic difficulties, and treatment. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Oct-Dec;17(4):197-204. Review (2005)
  • 69) Eisen JL, Phillips KA, Coles ME, Rasmussen SA. Insight in obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2004;45(1):10-5 (2004)
  • 67) Nuttin B, Gybels J, Cosyns P, Gabriels L, Meyerson B, Andreewitch S, Rasmussen SA, Greenberg B, Friehs G, Rezai AR, Montgomery E, Malone D, Fins JJ. Deep Brain Stimulation for Psychiatric Disorders. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003;14(2):xv-xvi (2003)
  • 66) Hollander E, Allen A, Steiner M, Wheadon DE, Oakes R, Burnam DB, Rasmussen SA. (Paroxetine OCD Study Group). Acute and long-term treatment and prevention of relapse of obsessive-compulsive disorder with paroxetine. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64(9):1113-21 (2003)
  • 68) Greenberg BD, Price LH, Rauch SL, Friehs G, Noren G, Malone D, Carpenter LL, Rezai AR, Rasmussen SA. Neurosurgery for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression: critical issues. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2003;14(2):199-212 (2003)
  • 15) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Course and Clinical Features of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Psychopharmacology: A Fifth Generation of Progress. Davis KL, Charney D, Coyle JT, Nemeroff C (eds.). Williams and Williams, Philadelphia, 2002 (2002)
  • 65) Hollander E, Bienstock CA, Koran LM, Pallanti S, Marazziti D, Rasmussen SA, Ravizza L, Benkelfat C, Saxena S, Greenberg BD, Sasson Y, Zohar J. Refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder; state-of-the-art treatment. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63 Suppl 6:20-9 (2002)
  • 64) Phillips KA, Albertini RS, Rasmussen SA. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in body dysmorphic disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002;59(4):381-8 (2002)
  • 63) Mataix-Cols D, Rauch SL, Baer L, Eisen jl, Shera DM, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Jenike MA. Symptom stability in adult obsessive-compulsive disorder; data from a naturalistic two-year follow-up study. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(2):263-8 (2002)
  • 16) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Phenemenology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Textbook of Anxiety Disorders. Stein DJ, Hollander E (eds.). APA Press, Washington, DC, 2002 (2002)
  • 62) Eisen JL, Leonard HL, Swedo SE, Price LH, Zabriskie JB, Chiang SY, Karitani M, Rasmussen SA. The use of antibody D8/17 to identify B cells in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2001;104(3):221-5 (2001)
  • 60) Phillips KA, McElroy SL, Dwight MM, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Delusionality and response to open-label fluvoxamine in body dysmorphic disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62(2):87-91 (2001)
  • 61) Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA, Phillips KA, Price LH, Davidson J, Lydiard RB, Ninan P, Piggot T. Insight and treatment outcomes in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 2001;42(6):494-7 (2001)
  • 59) Greenberg BD, Murphy DL, Rasmussen SA. Neuroanatomically based approaches to obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neurosurgery and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2000;23(3);671-86 (2000)
  • 58) Attiullah N, Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Clinical Features of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatry Clin North Am. 2000;23(3):469-91 (2000)
  • 57) Carpenter LL, Jocic Z, Hall JM, Rasmussen SA, Price LH. Mirtazapine Augmentation in the Treatment of Refractory Depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 1999;60(1):45-9 (1999)
  • 55) Alsobrook JP II, Leckman JF, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Pauls DL. Segregation analysis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder using symptom-based factors. Am J Med Genet. 1999;88(6):669-75 (1999)
  • 54) Eisen JL, Goodman WK, Keller MB, Warshaw MG, DeMarco LM, Luce DD, Rasmussen SA. Patterns of Remission and Relapse in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A 2-Year Prospective Study. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60(5):346-351 (1999)
  • 53) Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Natural History of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999;56:131-132 (1999)
  • 56) Phillips KA, Rasmussen SA, Price LH. Treating Imagined Ugliness. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1999;56(11):1041-2 (1999)
  • 52) Van Noppen BL, Pato MT, Marsland R and Rasmussen SA. A time-limited Behavioral Group for Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998;7(4):272-280 (1998)
  • 51) Dickstein S, Seifer R, Hayden LC, Schiller M, Sameroff AJ, Keitner G, Miller I, Rasmussen SA, Matzko M, Magee KD. Levels of Family Assessment II: Impact of Maternal Psychopathology on Family Functioning. Maternal Psychopathology and Family Functioning. Journal of Family Psychology 1998;12(1):23-40 (1998)
  • 49) Eisen JL, Phillips KA, Baer L, Beer DA, Atala KD, Rasmussen SA. The Brown Assessment of Beliefs Scale (BABS): reliability and validity. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998;155(1):102-108 (1998)
  • 50) Haden LC, Schiller M, Dickstein S, Seifer R, Sameroff AJ, Miller I, Keitner G and Rasmussen SA. Levels of Family Assessment I: Family, Marital, and Parent-child Interaction. Journal of Family Psychology 1998;12(1):7-22 (1998)
  • 14) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Epidemiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment, 3rd Ed. Jenike MA, Baer L, Minnichiello WE (eds.). Mosby, Inc., Littleton, MA, 1998 (1998)
  • 48) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Treatment Strategies for Chronic and Refractory Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1997;58(suppl 13):9-13 (1997)
  • 46) Eisen JL, Beer DA, Pato MT, Venditto TA, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154(2)271-273 (1997)
  • 45) Leckman JF, Grice DE, Boardman J, Zhang H, Vitale A, Bondi C, Alsobrook J, Peterson BS, Cohen DJ, Rasmussen SA, Goodman WK, McDougle CJ, Pauls DL. Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154(7):911-17 (1997)
  • 43) Kohn R, Westlake RJ, Rasmussen SA, Marsland RT, Norman WH. Clinical Features of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Elderly Patients. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 1997;5(3):211-215 (1997)
  • 42) Rasmussen SA, Hackett E, DuBoff E, Greist J, Halaris A, Koran LM, Liebowitz M, Lydiard RB, McElroy S, Mendels J, O'Connor K. A 2-year Study of Sertraline in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. International Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1997;12(6):309-316 (1997)
  • 41) Noyes R Jr, Moroz G, Davidson JRT, Liebowitz MR, Davidson A, Siegal J, Bell J, CainJW, Curlik SM, Kent TA, Lydiard RB, Mallinger AG, Pollack MH, Rapaport M, Rasmussen SA, Hedges D, Schweizer E, Uhlenhuth E. Meclobemide in Social Phobia: A Controlled Dose-Response Trial. J Clin Psychopharmacology 1997;17(4):247-254 (1997)
  • 44) Phillips KA, Hollander E, Rasmussen SA, Aronwitz BR, DeCaria C & Goodman WK. A Severity Rating Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Development, Reliability, and Validity of a modified Version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1997;33(1):17-22 (1997)
  • 47) Price LP and Rasmussen SA. Stress and Depression: Is Neuroimmunology the missing link? Harvard Review of Psychiatry 1997;5(2):108-12 (1997)
  • 40) Salloway S, Stewart CF, Israeli L, Morales X, Rasmussen SA, Blitzer A, Brin MF. Botulinum toxin for refractory vocal ties. Brief Report. Movement Disorders 1996;11(6):746-748 (1996)
  • 39) Greist J, Chouinard G, Du Boff E, Halaris A, Kim SW, Koran L, Liebowitz M, Lydiard RB, Rasmussen SA, White K, et al. Double-blind Parallel Comparison of Three Dosages of Sertraline and Placebo in Outpatients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1995;52(4):289-295 (1995)
  • 37) Pauls DL, Alsobrook JP II, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Leckman JF. A family study of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152(1):76-84 (1995)
  • 36) Greist JH, Jefferson JW, Kobak KA, Chouinard G, DuBoff E, Halaris A, Kim SW, Koran L, Liebowtiz MR, Lydiard B, et al. A 1 year double-blind placebo-controlled fixed dose study of sertraline in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 1995 Jun;10(2):57-65 (1995)
  • 35) Koran LM, McElroy SL, Davidson JRT, Rasmussen SA, Hollander E, Jenike MA. Fluvoxamine versus Clomipramine for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Blind Comparison. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 1995;16(2):121-129 (1995)
  • 38) Foa EB, Kozak MJ, Goodman WK, Hollander E, Jenike M, and Rasmussen SA. DSM-IV Field Trial: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1995;152(1):90-96 (1995)
  • 13) Price LH and Rasmussen SA. Drug Combination Strategies. Amsterdam, J.D., Hornig-Rohan, M., Neirenberg, AA (eds), Chapter in Refractory Disorders, Cambridge University Press, New York, 1995 (1995)
  • 12) Rasmussen SA. Genetic Studies of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Chapter in: Current Insights in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Hollander, E, Zohar, J, Marazziti, D Olivier, B (eds). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, New York, 1994 (1994)
  • 33) Mindus P, Rasmussen SA, and Lindquist C. Neurosurgical Treatment for Refractory Obsessive Disorder: Implications for Understanding Frontal Lobe Function. J of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 1994;6(4):467-477 (1994)
  • 32) Rasmussen SA. Obsessive Compulsive Spectrum Disorders. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1994;55(3):89-91 (1994)
  • 31) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Epidemiology and Differential Diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin Psychiatry 1994;55(suppl),5-10 (1994)
  • 34) Leckman JF, Grice DE, Barr, LC, DeVries A.LC, Martin C, Cohen DJ, McDougle CJ, Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA. Tic-Related vs. Non-Tic-Related Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Anxiety 1994/1995, 1:208-215 (1994)
  • 11) Goodman WK, Rasmussen SA, Foa E, Price LH. Obsessive compulsive disorder. Chapter in: Clinical Evaluation of Psychotropic Drugs: Principles and Guidelines, Prien RF, Robinson DS (eds), Raven Press, New York, 1994 (1994)
  • 10) Van Noppen B, Pato MT, Rasmussen SA. Learning to Live with OCD, 2nd edition. New Haven, CT, OC Foundation, 1993 (1993)
  • 30) Rasmussen SA. Genetic studies of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry 1993;5(4):241-247 (1993)
  • 29) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL, and MT. Current Issues in the Pharmacologic Management of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1993;54(6, suppl), 4-9 (1993)
  • 28) Eisen JL, Rasmussen SA. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Psychotic Features. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1993;54(10):373-379 (1993)
  • 9) Rasmussen SA and Eisen JL. Cormorbidity and Heterogenity of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Current Treatment Approaches to Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. (Greist JL ed) APA Press, Washington, 1993 (1993)
  • 27) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Epidemiology and Clinical Features of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 1992;15(4):743-758 (1992)
  • 26) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Epidemiology and Differential Diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1992;53(4):3-9 (1992)
  • 8) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. The Epidemiology and Differential Diagnosis of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Obsessive Compulsive Disorders: New Research Results (Hand I, Goodman, WK ed) Springer, Verlag, Berlin, 1992 (1992)
  • 7) Fallon B, Rasmussen SA. Hypochondriasis as an OC Spectrum Disorder: In OCD and OCD Spectrum Disorders. Edited Hollander EH, APA Press Washington, 1991 (1991)
  • 25) Deveaugh-Geiss JA, Landau PR, Katz RL, Rasmussen SA et al. Efficacy of Clomipramine in OCD; Results of a Multicenter Double-Blind Trial. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1991;48:730-738 (1991)
  • 6) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JE. Phenomenology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Psychobiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Eds. T. Insel, S. Rasmussen. J. Zohar, Springer Verlag, New York, NY 1991 (1991)
  • 5) Livingston BL, Rasmussen SA, McCartney LS, Eisen JL. Family Treatment in Obsessive compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment. (Jenike MA, Baer L, Minichiello WE Eds.), PSG Publishing, 2nd Ed. Littleton, Mass. 1990 (1990)
  • 24) Chouinard G, Goodman W, Greist J, Jenike M, Rasmussen SA, White K, Hackett E, Gaffacy M, Bick PA. Results of a Double-blind Placebo Controlled Trial of a New Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor, Sertraline, in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Psychopharmacol Bull 1990;26(3):279-284 (1990)
  • 23) DeVeaugh-Geiss J, Katz R, Landau P, Goodman W, Rasmussen SA. Clinical Predictors of Treatment Response in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: exploratory analyses from multicenter trails of clomipramine. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1990;26(1):54-59 (1990)
  • 22) Goodman WK, Price LH, Delgado PL, Palumbo J, Krystal JH, Nagy LM, Rasmussen SA, Heninger GR, Charney DS. Specificity of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors in the Treatment of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Comparison of Fluvoxamine and Desipramine. Arch. Gen. Psych. 1990;47(6):577-585 (1990)
  • 21) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Epidemiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1990;51(2):10-14 (1990)
  • 20) Malloy P, Rasmussen SA, Braden WA, Haier RC. P300 Topographic Evoked Potentials in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Evidence for Frontal Dysfunction. Psychiatry Research 1989;28(1):63-73 (1989)
  • 19) Goodman WK, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Delgado PL, Heninger GR, Charney DS. Fluxovamine as an Antiobsessional Agent. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1989;25(1):31-35 (1989)
  • 18) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JL. Clinical Features of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Psychiatric Annals 1989;19(2):67-73 (1989)
  • 17) Eisen JE, Rasmussen SA. Coexisting Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Alcoholism. J Clin. Psychiatry 1989;50(3):96-98 (1989)
  • 15) Goodman WG, Price LA, Rasmussen SA, Mazure CS, Fleischmann RL, Hill CL, Heninger GR, Charney DS. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Rating Scale (Y-BOCS) Part I. Development, Use and Reliability. Arch. Gen Psychiatry 1989;46(11):1006-1011 (1989)
  • 14) Goodman W, Price LA, Rasmussen SA, Charney DS, Heninger GR. Efficacy of Fluvoxamine in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. A double blind comparison with placebo. Arch Gen Psych 1989;46(1):36-44 (1989)
  • 16) Goodman W, Price LA, Rasmussen SA, Mazure C, Delgado P, Heninger GR, Charney DS. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) Part II. Validity. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 1989;46(11):1012-1016 (1989)
  • 4) Livingston BL, Rasmussen SA, McCartney LS, Eisen JL. Psychosocial Aspects in the Treatment of OCD in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment. Ed. Pato, M. APA Press, 1989 (1989)
  • 13) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JE. Clinical and Epidemiological Findings of Significance to Neuropharmacologic Trials in OCD. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1988;24(3):466-470 (1988)
  • 12) Gordon AL, Rasmussen SA. Mood Related Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in a Patient with Bipolar Affective Disorder. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;49:27-28 (1988)
  • 11) Goodman W, Charney DS, Price LH, Rasmussen SA, Heninger HR. Serotonin Function in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, A comparison of the effects of tryptophan and m-chlorophenylpiperazine in patients and healthy subjects. Arch Gen Psych 1988;45:177-185 (1988)
  • 10) Rasmussen SA, Goodman W, Charney DS, Heninger GR. Effects of Yohimbine Challenge in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Psychopharmacology 1987;93(3):308-313 (1987)
  • 9) Price LA, Goodman NK, Charney DS, Rasmussen SA, Heninger GR. Treatment of Severe Obsessive Compulsive Disorder with Fluvoxamine. Am. J. Psychiatry 1987;144:1059-1061 (1987)
  • 2) Rasmussen SA, Keitner GK. Lithium and Tricyclic Antidepressant Combination Therapy in Lithium. Monographs, Vol. 1, Chapter 2., Karger Basel, F.N. Johnson, Ed. 1986 (1986)
  • 8) Rasmussen SA, Tsuang MT. Epidemiologic and Clinical Findings of Significance to the Design of Neuropharmacologic Studies of OCD. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1986;22(3):723-729 (1986)
  • 5) Rasmussen SA, Tsuang MT. DSM-III Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Clinical Characteristics and Family History. Am. J. Psychiatry 1986;143:317-322 (1986)
  • 7) Max J, Rasmussen SA. Clonidine in the Treatment of Tourette's Syndrome Exacerbation due to Haloperidol Withdrawal. J Nervous and Mental Disease 1986;174(4):243-246 (1986)
  • 1) Rasmussen SA, Tsuang MT. The Epidemiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Diagnosis and Treatment. (Jenike MA, Baer L, Minichiello WE Eds.) PSG Publishing, Littleton, Mass. 1986 (1986)
  • 3) Rasmussen SA, Eisen JE. Heterogeneity and Co-existence in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in New Directions in Affective Disorder. Eds. E. Gershon, B. Langer, Springer Verlag, 1986 (1986)
  • 6) Rasmussen SA. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Dermatologic Practice. J. Am. Acad. Dermatology 1985;13(6):965-967 (1985)
  • 4) Rasmussen SA. Lithium and Tryptophan Augmentation in Clomipramine Resistant Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1984;141:1283-1285 (1984)
  • 3) Rasmussen SA, Tsuang MT. The epidemiology of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: A Review. J. Clin. Psychiatry 1984;45:450-457 (1984)
  • 2) Rasmussen SA, Bunney BS. A Modification of the Rapid Glyoxylic Acid Technique Permits Visualization of Serotonergic and Hypothalamic Dopaminergic Neurons. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 1982;6:139-143 (1982)
  • 1)Rasmussen SA, Davis RP. Differential Effects of Microtubular Antagonists in Lympocyte Mitogenesis. Nature 1976;277:1231-1232 (1976)