Faculty Profile: Linda Resnik, PhD, PT

Linda Resnik
Linda Resnik, PhD, PT
Associate Professor (Research)
Health Services, Policy and Practice
Work: +1 401-863-9214
Dr. Resnik's research activities bridge the methodologies of rehabilitation and health services research. Her research focuses on the following areas: 1) design and evaluation of advanced upper limb prosthetic devices and other assistive technologies; 2) development and evaluation of rehabilitation outcomes measures; 3) delivery and effectiveness of rehabilitation services.
She is a member of 3 research teams; Brown's Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, Providence VA HSR&D funded Research Enhancement Program, and RR&D funded Center for Neurorestoration and Neurothechnolgoy (CfNN). She is the leader of the CfFNN Focus Area on Restoration of Motor Function: Translating advanced arm prosthetics for limb loss


Dr. Resnik received her Ph.D. in physical therapy from Nova Southeastern University, her MS in physical therapy from Sargent College, Boston University, and her BS from Hampshire College. Dr. Resnik has a clinical background in physical therapy. She completed a two year AHRQ funded postdoctoral fellowship at the Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research and was appointed Assistant Professor in the Department of Community Health in July 2004, and Associate Professor in July 2009. She is also a Research Health Scientist/physical therapist at the Providence VA Medical Center (PVAMC).

Research Description

Assessment of community reintegration:

VA Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm:

Grants and Awards

OPTP Award for Excellence in a Published Review of the Literature for 2001, Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapeutics, 2002
Dorothy Briggs Memorial Scientific Inquiry Award. Post-Professional Doctoral Level, American Physical
Therapy Association, 2004

Technology Laureate Award, nominated in the category of Excellence in the Use of Science or Technology for Humanitarianism, Tech Collective, Providence RI, 2006

Employee of the Year, Hospital Association of Rhode Island, Providence VA Medical Center, 2009

Faculty of the Month, Center for Gerontology and Health Care Research, October/November 2009

Master of Arts, ad eundem, Brown University, May 2010


American Physical Therapy Association
American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

Funded Research

Current Grants

VA HSR&D SDR 13-423 VA/DOD Guidebook for Healthcare Research
Principal Investigator
The purpose of this project is to fund dissemination activities of the VA/DoD Guidebook for Healthcare Research.

VA HSR&D REA-08-391 Supplement
Project Lead
The purpose of this supplement is to revise the VA/DoD Collaboration Guidebook for Healthcare Research.

VA RR&D A9226-R Home Study of an Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis
7/1/2012 – 12/30/2016
Principal Investigator
The overall objective of the proposed study is to examine the feasibility, acceptance and benefits of home use of an advanced upper limb prosthetic device as well as the logistical support requirements utilized during 3 months of home usage.

VA A9226-R (Resnik) Consistent w/ VA A9226-R (VA APPT)
7/1/12 – 12/30/16
Home Study of an Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis Project Modification
This funding supports additional funds to support Prosthetist Equipment and Supply Depot Activities and expand the aims of the home study. The new aim is to describe normative AROM during everyday tasks, and then describe movement patterns utilized by subjects using both their conventional prostheses and the DEKA Arm. Testing in the computer assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN) system will be conducted to compare the performance of 6 non-disabled subjects with that of 3 unilateral upper limb amputee subjects using their current prosthesis, and then using the DEKA Arm to perform five basic functional activities of daily living.

VA RR&D A9227-P Interface Kinematics of Transhumeral Prosthetic Sockets using XROMM
The overall purpose of this pilot study is to conduct a head to head comparison of two candidate socket designs, the traditional transhumeral (TH) socket design and a socket designed to provide great skeletal stability. Our comparisons will include assessments of patient comfort and satisfaction with fit, as well as dynamic kinematic assessment using a novel high-speed, high-resolution, bi-plane videoradiography system (XROMM, for X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology). Results will provide preliminary evidence to guide decisions regarding socket design for the VA's take home study of the DEKA Arm, and will provide valuable preliminary data to support a proposal for a larger study of prosthetic socket design.

DOD Peer-Reviewed Orthopaedic Research: Variable-Stiffness Knee Orthosis for Gait Assistance
W81XWH-11-2-0054 (Dollar- Yale University)
Principal Investigator: Subcontract to Brown University
The purpose of this study is to develop a variable stiffness knee orthosis and conduct pilot clinical evaluation in a sample of persons with spinal cord injury

Community Reintegration of Service Members Instrument- A pilot project to detect differences attributable to mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Levin) 1150791, VACO #B6812-C
This project will be conducted as part of the Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center's Neurorehabilitation: Neurons to Networks Center of Excellence (N:N2N COE). We aim to study the relevance of the community reintegration instrument (CRIS) in OEF/OIF veterans with mTBI as defined through the extensive assessment conducted at the N:N2N Center.

VA HSR&D Aligning Resources to Care for Homeless Veterans (ARCH) (O'Toole)
The objectives of this grant is to study the best ways to organize and deliver primary care for homeless Veterans with four different adaptations of the PACT primary care model in a mixed methods study that includes multi-center, randomized-controlled trials of embedded peer-mentoring within different iterations of the PACT model, focus groups of study participants assessing satisfaction, treatment engagement and self-efficacy within the different care models, and a cost-utility analysis to determine the most cost-efficient approach to organizing care for this population. Specific Aims: 1) Determine optimal care approaches for reducing emergency department visits and acute hospitalizations, increasing patient satisfaction, and improving chronic disease management. 2) Add to our understanding of health seeking behavior and the care of vulnerable/high-risk Veteran populations as well as clinical systems design.

Building the Foundation for Clinical Practice of EMG Pattern Recognition for Prosthetic Arm Control
NIDRR H133G12065 (Huang-URI)
Principal Investigator subcontract to Brown University (Resnik)
The aims of this proposal are 1)to develop reliable and robust prosthesis control algorithms based on EMG pattern recognition scheme, 2) to embed, implement, and the prototype EMG PR-based prosthesis controller and calibration interface for multifunctional transradial prostheses and 3) to evaluate the developed prosthesis control based on EMG PR in Aim 2 in short-term laboratory tests and long-term use in daily living

Completed Grants
VA RR&D A9226 Equipment Grant Home Study of an Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis
8 /15/2012-9/20/2012
The purpose of this equipment grant is to purchase DEKA Arms and replacement parts for the VA Home Study of an Advanced Upper Limb Prosthesis.

VA HSR&D QUERI 3620160 Measurement Group for the VA Amputation System of Care Registry/Repository
Co-Investigator (Reiber, Seattle VA)
The objectives of this group are to 1) Review the goals of and plans for the VA Amputee Registry/Repository; 2) build on prior reviews of literature and new research evidence, review potential core data elements and outcome measures for lower and upper limb amputees; 3) conduct an environmental scan of the VA to see what elements and measures are already collected; 4) Recommend a core set of data elements and measures to be included in the planned Registry/Repository; 5) be a resource for the VA Amputation System of Care.

VA RR&D A6780I VA Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm
4/1/09- 6/30/12
Principal Investigator
The primary objectives of this iterative usability and optimization study were to: 1) determine the feasibility of the deployment of the DEKA arm by clinicians in the rehabilitation community; and 2) optimize the DEKA arm system to best suit VA patient needs. Specifically we aim to: 1) Evaluate the amputee's experience of using the DEKA arm; 2) Evaluate clinicians' experience of fitting, setting up and training subjects with the DEKA arm; 3) Evaluate improvements in the arm and it's software as it is optimized by DEKA throughout the study.

VA RR&D A6780I VA Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm- Equipment Grant
Principal Investigator
The purpose of this grant was to support acquisition of and technical support for Advanced Prosthetic Upper Limb Devices.

1 R42HD065688-01 Improving Outcome Measurement for Medical Rehabilitation Clinical Trials (Jette)
9/23/2010 – 5/31/2011
Subcontract to Ocean State Research Institute
Principal Investigator
The purposes of the pilot study titled, Refining the CRIS-CAT for Community Reintegration were to 1). Develop a prototype CRIS-CAT User Interface that incorporates a touch screen interface as well as audio-assisted computer interface (ACASI).; 2.) Conduct a formative evaluation to refine the features of the CRIS-CAT User Interface; and 3) evaluate test-retest reliability and calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) of the CRIS-CAT.

1 R42HD065688-01 Improving Outcome Measurement for Medical Rehabilitation Clinical Trials (Jette)
9/23/2010 – 9/31/2011
Subcontract to Brown University
Visiting Scientist The Boston CRO Network brings together nationally-recognized experts in key areas of outcome measurement from the following Boston-area institutions: Boston University (patient/clinician reported outcomes), Tufts University (performance-based outcome measures), and Harvard University/Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital (instrumented outcome measures). The Boston CRO Network provides opportunities for visiting rehabilitation researchers to work with outcome measurement experts engaged in the Network through a formal Visiting Scientist Program (VSP). The Network's VSP provides one scientist each year the opportunity for hands-on experience working on-site with investigators at one of the collaborating Boston CRO Network institutions.

VA RR&D A6780I VA Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm: Addendum
10/1/09- 9/30/10
The objective of this grant was to expand the number of sites in the VA Study to Optimize the DEKA Arm by adding the Center for the Intrepid at Brooke Army Medical Center.

VA HSR&D DHI-07-144 A Computer Adaptive Test to Measure Community Reintegration
Principal Investigator
The Community Re-integration of Service Members (CRIS) measure was recently developed through formative research on OIF/OEF veterans, caregivers and clinical experts, and a comprehensive review of concepts and content of existing measures. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop the CRIS into a computer adaptive test (the CRIS-CAT) that will facilitate efficient yet comprehensive collection of community re-integration data; 2) assess psychometric characteristics of the CRIS-CAT including concurrent, discriminant and predictive validity, and to 3) use the new measure to compare and contrast community re-integration outcomes in the 3 groups of veterans whose outcomes are expected to span the spectrum.

VA HSR&D DHI-07-144 A Computer Adaptive Test to Measure Community Reintegration: Project Modification Opportunity Grant
Principal Investigator
This grant funded modifications to the research objectives for DHI 144 to expand the size of the field study by 200 participants, and to add an additional aim to compare telephone and in-person administration of CRIS-CAT scales.

VA HSR&D Survey of the Organizational Structure of the Physical Therapy Service in VA (Sinnott) 10/09-9/30/10
The objective of this pilot project were to develop and pilot test a survey of VA Managers of Physical Therapy Services to determine key operational and organizational characteristics that have been hypothesized to have an impact on patient outcomes. The specific aims of this pilot project were to: 1) develop a survey instrument that is useful for administrative and research purposes, designed to identify administrative and operational characteristics hypothesized to influence quality and outcomes of care for patients treated by physical therapists; 2) gather pilot data from a sub sample of service managers and 3) revise and finalize the survey instrument.

DOD W81XWH-07-1-0689 PTSD in Limb Trauma and Recovery (Aaron PI)
Investigator: Identifying Clinically Meaningful Improvement in Rehabilitation of Lower-Limb Amputees
The purposes of this study were to 1) compare test-retest reliability for self-report and performance-based measures; 2) test a new scoring system for the PEQ, 3) determine if any measures should be omitted from future study due to prevalent floor or ceiling effects; and 4) assess the feasibility of using a composite score of physical performance as an external criterion of change.

VA RR&D A6780 VA Cooperative Study to Optimize a New Upper Limb Prosthesis: Phase II
Principal Investigator
The objectives of this study were to 1) obtain preliminary data to inform the design of a VA multisite study and 2) share findings with DEKA so that information can be used to optimize the arm, its software, and training materials. Research Design: The study employed a case series design using a mixed-methodology approach..

HSR&D SDR 07-327 Community Reintegration for OEF/OIF Veterans: Research Collaborations
Principal Investigator
The objectives of this study were to 1) develop a research agenda of mutual interest with researchers and clinicians from the Brooke Army Medical Center; 2) continue psychometric testing of the paper-and-pencil version of the Community Reintegration of Service Members (CRIS), a new veteran-centric measure of community reintegration specific to veterans, in preparation for development of a computer adaptive test; 3) test the responsiveness of the CRIS measure in a sample of 50 patients from Brooke Army Medical Center; and 4) explore issues in adjustment to community living following deployment for female veterans.

Department of Veterans Affairs A3772C (Aaron) RR&D Center of Excellence for Tissue Engineering (TECOE)
Investigator, Clinical and Translation Core
The focus of our research program was the restoration of function after limb loss through sophisticated and advanced techniques of tissue engineering, neurotechnology, and robotics. There were five research programs that focus on improving the function of amputees by advancing the concept of the biohybrid limb, translating developments in basic science to the clinic, and evaluating the efficacy of those developments: Program 1 Tissue Engineered Solutions for Traumatic Limb Loss; Program 2 Improving the Soft Tissue Seal Around and Osseointegration Device; Program 3 Broadband Microelectric Interfaces: Advance Technology, Human Performance Augmentation and Robotic Control; Program 4 Lower Extremity Protheses with Muscle-Like Actuation, Distributed Sensing, and Biomimetic Control; and Program 5 Application of Advanced Surgical Techniques and Translational Opportunities.

NICHD R03 HD053780-01A1 Refining Models for Risk Adjustment in Outpatient Rehabilitation
Principal Investigator
The Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) developed to predict functional status (FS) was recently added to the Focus on Therapeutic Outcomes (FOTO) outpatient rehabilitation database. The FCI was developed using cross-sectional data, and we do not know if observed relationships will persist in longitudinal analysis. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the association between the FCI and functional status (FS) at intake and discharge; 2) examine the impact of FCI on discharge FS when added to comprehensive predictive models of FS; and 3) examine the impact of FCI on the number of visits utilized, when added to comprehensive predictive models.

VA RR&D A6780I VA Cooperative Study to Optimize a New Upper Limb Prosthesis: Phase I
Principal Investigator
The DEKA Research and Development Corporation developed an advanced prosthetic arm under contract from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The overall objective of this planning grant was to work with VA Cooperative Studies to finalize the proposal and protocol for a VA multisite clinical trial.

VA HSR TREP (Friedmann) Program to Integrate Psychosocial and Health Services in Chronic Disease and Disability
Core Investigator
The goal of this HSR&D TREP proposal was to create a core program of investigators to facilitate career development and initiate HSR&D research projects at the Providence VA Medical Center (PVAMC), an affiliate of Brown Medical School. The initial pilot projects were designed to build health services research (HSR) infrastructure in primary care firms/community-based outpatient clinics (CBOC)s and the rehabilitation program affiliated with PVAMC (and eventually VISN-wide), and to bring together multidisciplinary faculty at Brown and PVAMC to mentor three promising junior investigators. Paul Pirraglia, MD, MPH, Wen-Chih (Hank) Wu, MD, and Linda Resnik, PhD, PT, OCS.

R03 NIA AG025094-01 Culture and Mobility.
Principal Investigator
The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of culture on attitudes and social norms regarding aging, mobility impairments and use of assistive devices for mobility

NICHD 1 RO3 HD051475-01 Profiling providers of outpatient physical therapy
Principal Investigator
The purposes of this study were to 1) profile physical therapy clinics by quality of care for patients with
lumbar spine syndromes; 2) quantify the relationship between staffing and caseload characteristics and the
quality profile that we develop; and 3) quantify the relationship between clinic quality profile and service
utilization patterns.

RI Foundation, 20052665 Community Reintegration of Injured Soldiers
Principal Investigator
The purposes were: to identify important aspects of community reintegration of injured service members and to develop and evaluate a new measure of community reintegration.

USDI 35196 Pathways to Recovery Pilot Projects (Wetle)
Investigator, Physical Rehabilitation and Community Services Needs for Soldiers and their Families
The purpose of this study was to identify the unmet service needs of soldiers returning from