Publications

Holt, N. C., Roberts,  T.J., Askew, G.N. (2014). The energetic benefits of tendon springs in running: is the reduction of muscle work important? J. Exp. Biol. 217, (Pt 24): 4365-4371. FULLTEXT

Astley, H. C. and Roberts, T.J., (2014). The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping. J. Exp. Biol. 217, (Pt 24): 4372-4378. FULLTEXT

Cheney, J.A., Konow, N., Middleton, K.M., Breuer, K.S., Roberts, T.J., Giblin, E.L., and Swartz, S.M. (2014). Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats. Bioinspir. Biomim. 9(2): 025007. FULLTEXT

Kambic, R. E., Roberts, T.J., Gatesy, S.M. (2014). Long-axis rotation: a missing degree of freedom in avian bipedal locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 217, (Pt 15): 2770-2782. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T.J. (2014). Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening. J. Exp. Biol. 217, (Pt 3): 376-381. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Konow, N. (2013). How tendons buffer energy dissipation by muscle. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 41(4): 186-193. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T.J. (2013). Variable gearing in a biologically inspired pneumatic actuator array. Bioinspir. Biomim. 8(2): 026002. FULLTEXT

Matson, A., Roberts, T.J., Konow, N., Miller, S., Konow, P.P. (2012). Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles. J. Exp. Biol.  215, (Pt 20): 3552-3558. FULLTEXT

Astley, H. C., and T. J. Roberts (2012). Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping. Biol. Lett. 8(3): 386-389. FULLTEXT

Langman, V. A., Roberts, T.J. Rowe, M.F., Langman, N.V., Taylor, C.R. (2012). Minimum cost of transport in Asian elephants: do we really need a bigger elephant? J. Exp. Biol. 215, (Pt 9): 1509-1514. FULLTEXT

Konow, N., Roberts, T.J., Azizi, E. (2012). Muscle power attenuation by tendon during energy dissipation. Proc. Biol. Sci. 279(1731): 1108-1113. FULLTEXT

Kim, H. R., Roberts, T.J., Liu, K., Hai, C.H. (2011). Length-dependent modulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and mechanical energetics in airway smooth muscle. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 44(6): 888-897. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Azizi, E., Abbott, E.M. (2011). The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 366(1570): 1488-1495. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Azizi, E. (2011). Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement. J. Exp. Biol. 214, (Pt 3): 353-361. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Azizi, E.  (2010). The series-elastic shock absorber: tendons attenuate muscle power during eccentric actions. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) (2): 396-404. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T.J. (2010). Muscle performance during frog jumping: influence of elasticity on muscle operating lengths. Proc. Biol. Sci. 277, (1687): 1523-1530. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T.J. (2009). Biaxial strain and variable stiffness in aponeuroses. J. Physiol. 587, (Pt 17): 4309-4318. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E., Halenda, G.M., Roberts, T.J. (2009). Mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis in wild turkeys. Integr. Comp. Biol. 49, (1): 51-58. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Gabaldon, A.M. (2008). Interpreting muscle function from EMG: lessons learned from direct measurements of muscle force. Integr. Comp. Biol. 48, (2): 312-320. FULLTEXT

Nelson, F. E. and Roberts, T.J. (2008). Task-dependent force sharing between muscle synergists during locomotion in turkeys. J. Exp. Biol. 211, (Pt 8): 1211-1220. FULLTEXT

Azizi, E., Roberts, T.J., Brainerd, E.L. (2008). Variable gearing in pennate muscles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A 105, (5): 1745-1750. FULLTEXT

Gabaldon, A. M., Roberts, T.J., Nelson, F.E. (2008). Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).  Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 294, (1): R200-210. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Higginson, B.K., Nelson, F.E., Gabaldon, A.M. (2007). Muscle strain is modulated more with running slope than speed in wild turkey knee and hip extensors. J. Exp. Biol. 210, (Pt 14): 2510-2517. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Belliveau, R.A. (2005). Sources of mechanical power for uphill running in humans. J. Exp. Biol.  208, (Pt 10): 1963-1970. FULLTEXT

Biewener, A. A., Roberts, T.J., Farley, C.T., Temaner, M. (2004). Muscle mechanical advantage of human walking and running: implications for energy cost. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 97(6): 2266-2274. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Scales J.A. (2004). Adjusting muscle function to demand: joint work during acceleration in wild turkeys. J. Exp. Biol. 207, (Pt 23): 4165-4174. FULLTEXT

Gabaldon, A. M., Roberts, T.J., Nelson, F.E. (2004). Mechanical function of two ankle extensors in wild turkeys: shifts from energy production to energy absorption during incline versus decline running. J. Exp. Biol. 207, (Pt 13): 2277-2288. FULLTEXT

Nelson, F. E., Roberts, T.J. Gabaldon, A.M. (2004). Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 137, (4): 711-721. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Marsh R.L. (2003). Probing the limits to muscle-powered accelerations: lessons from jumping bullfrogs. J. Exp. Biol. 206, (Pt 15): 2567-2580. FULLTEXT

Griffin, T. M., Roberts, T.J., Kram, R. (2003). Metabolic cost of generating muscular force in human walking: insights from load-carrying and speed experiments. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 95(1): 172-183. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. (2002). The integrated function of muscles and tendons during locomotion. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 133, (4): 1087-1099. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J. and Scales J.A. (2002). Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys. J. Exp. Biol. 205, (Pt 10): 1485-1494. FULLTEXT

Biewener, A. A. and Roberts, T.J. (2000). Muscle and tendon contributions to force, work, and elastic energy savings: a comparative perspective. Exerc. Sport. Sci. Rev. 28, (3): 99-107. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Chen, M.S., Taylor, C.R. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running. II. Limb design and running mechanics. J. Exp. Biol. 201, (Pt 19): 2753-2762. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Taylor, C.R., Kram, R., Weyand, P.G. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running. I. Metabolic cost of generating force. J. Exp. Biol. 201, (Pt 19): 2745-2751. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Marsh, R.L., Taylor, C.R., Weyand, P.G. (1997). Muscular force in running turkeys: the economy of minimizing work. Science 275(5303): 1113-1115. FULLTEXT

Weibel, E. R., Roberts, T.J., Taylor, C.R., Weber, J.M., Vock, R., Hoppeler, H. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. VII. Different structural limits for oxygen and substrate supply to muscle mitochondria. J. Exp. Biol. 199, (Pt 8): 1699-1709. FULLTEXT

Weber, J. M., Roberts, T.J., Vock, R., Weibel, E.R., Taylor, C.R. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. III. Partitioning energy provision from carbohydrates. J. Exp. Biol. 199, (Pt 8): 1659-1666. FULLTEXT

Roberts, T. J., Weber, J.M., Taylor, C.R., Hoppeler, H., Weiber, E.R. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. II. Defining the upper limits of carbohydrate and fat oxidation. J. Exp. Biol. 199, (Pt 8): 1651-1658. FULLTEXT

Langman, V. A., Roberts, T.J., Black, J., Maloiy, J.M., Heglund, N.C., Weber, J.M., Kram, R., Taylor, C.R. (1995). Moving cheaply: energetics of walking in the African elephant. J. Exp. Biol. 198, (Pt 3): 629-632. FULLTEXT

Weber, J. M., Roberts, T.J., Taylor, C.R. (1993). Mismatch between lipid mobilization and oxidation: glycerol kinetics in running African goats. Am. J. Physiol. 264, (4 Pt 2): R797-803. FULLTEXT