Publications

Holt, N. C., Roberts,  T. J., et al. (2014). The energetic benefits of tendon springs in running: is the reduction of muscle work important? Journal of Experimal Bioliolgy 217(Pt 24): 4365-4371.

Astley, H. C. and T. J. Roberts (2014). The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping. J Exp Biol 217(Pt 24): 4372-4378.

Cheney, J. A., Roberts, T.J. et al. (2014). Membrane muscle function in the compliant wings of bats. Bioinspir. Biomim. 9(2): 025007.

Kambic, R. E., Roberts, T.J. et al. (2014). Long-axis rotation: a missing degree of freedom in avian bipedal locomotion. Journal of Experimental Biology 217(Pt 15): 2770-2782.

Azizi, E. and T. J. Roberts (2014). Geared up to stretch: pennate muscle behavior during active lengthening. Journal of Expimental Biology 217(Pt 3): 376-381.

Roberts, T. J. and N. Konow (2013). How tendons buffer energy dissipation by muscle. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev. 41(4): 186-193.

Azizi, E. and T. J. Roberts (2013). Variable gearing in a biologically inspired pneumatic actuator array. Bioinspir. Biomim. 8(2): 026002.

Matson, A., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2012). Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(Pt 20): 3552-3558.

Astley, H. C. and T. J. Roberts (2012). Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping. Biol. Lett. 8(3): 386-389.

Langman, V. A., T.J. Roberts et al. (2012). Minimum cost of transport in Asian elephants: do we really need a bigger elephant? Journal of Experimental Biology  215(Pt 9): 1509-1514.

Konow, N., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2012). Muscle power attenuation by tendon during energy dissipation. Proc. Biol. Sci. 279(1731): 1108-1113.

Kim, H. R., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2011). Length-dependent modulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and mechanical energetics in airway smooth muscle. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 44(6): 888-897.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (2011). The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs? Philos Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 366(1570): 1488-1495.

Roberts, T. J. and E. Azizi (2011). Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement. Journal of Experimental Biology 214(Pt 3): 353-361.

Roberts, T. J. and E. Azizi (2010). The series-elastic shock absorber: tendons attenuate muscle power during eccentric actions. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) (2): 396-404

Azizi, E. and T. J. Roberts (2010). Muscle performance during frog jumping: influence of elasticity on muscle operating lengths. Proc Biol Sci 277(1687): 1523-1530.

Azizi, E. and T. J. Roberts (2009). Biaxial strain and variable stiffness in aponeuroses. J. Physiol. 587(Pt 17): 4309-4318.

Azizi, E., et al. (2009). Mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis in wild turkeys. Integr. Comp. Biol. 49(1): 51-58.

Roberts, T. J. and A. M. Gabaldon (2008). Interpreting muscle function from EMG: lessons learned from direct measurements of muscle force. Integr Comp Biol 48(2): 312-320.

Nelson, F. E. and T. J. Roberts (2008). Task-dependent force sharing between muscle synergists during locomotion in turkeys. Journal of Experimental Biology 211(Pt 8): 1211-1220.

Azizi, E., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2008). Variable gearing in pennate muscles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105(5): 1745-1750.

Gabaldon, A. M., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2008). Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).  Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 294(1): R200-210.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (2007). Muscle strain is modulated more with running slope than speed in wild turkey knee and hip extensors. Journal of Experimental Biology 210(Pt 14): 2510-2517.

Roberts, T. J. and R. A. Belliveau (2005). Sources of mechanical power for uphill running in humans. Journal of Experimental Biology 208(Pt 10): 1963-1970.

Biewener, A. A., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2004). Muscle mechanical advantage of human walking and running: implications for energy cost. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 97(6): 2266-2274.

Roberts, T. J. and J. A. Scales (2004). Adjusting muscle function to demand: joint work during acceleration in wild turkeys. Journal of Experimental Biology 207(Pt 23): 4165-4174.

Gabaldon, A. M., Roberts, T.J., et al. (2004). Mechanical function of two ankle extensors in wild turkeys: shifts from energy production to energy absorption during incline versus decline running. Journal of Experimental Biology 207(Pt 13): 2277-2288.

Nelson, F. E., Roberts, T.J. et al. (2004). Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles. Comp Biochem. Physiol. A. Mol. Integr. Physiol. 137(4): 711-721.

Roberts, T. J. and R. L. Marsh (2003). Probing the limits to muscle-powered accelerations: lessons from jumping bullfrogs. Journal of Experimental Biology 206(Pt 15): 2567-2580.

Griffin, T. M., et al. (2003). Metabolic cost of generating muscular force in human walking: insights from load-carrying and speed experiments. J. Appl. Physiol. (1985) 95(1): 172-183.

Roberts, T. J. (2002). The integrated function of muscles and tendons during locomotion. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 133(4): 1087-1099.

Roberts, T. J. and J. A. Scales (2002). Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys. Journal of Experimental Biology 205(Pt 10): 1485-1494.

Biewener, A. A. and T. J. Roberts (2000). Muscle and tendon contributions to force, work, and elastic energy savings: a comparative perspective. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 28(3): 99-107.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running. II. Limb design and running mechanics. Journal of Experimental Biology 201(Pt 19): 2753-2762.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running. I. Metabolic cost of generating force. Journal of Experimental Biology 201(Pt 19): 2745-2751.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (1997). Muscular force in running turkeys: the economy of minimizing work. Science 275(5303): 1113-1115.

Weibel, E. R., Roberts, T.J., et al. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. VII. Different structural limits for oxygen and substrate supply to muscle mitochondria. Journal of Experimental Biology 199(Pt 8): 1699-1709.

Weber, J. M., Roberts, T.J.,  et al. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. III. Partitioning energy provision from carbohydrates. Journal of Experimental Biology 199(Pt 8): 1659-1666.

Roberts, T. J., et al. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. II. Defining the upper limits of carbohydrate and fat oxidation. Journal of Experimental Biology 199(Pt 8): 1651-1658.

Langman, V. A., Roberts, T.J., et al. (1995). Moving cheaply: energetics of walking in the African elephant. Journal of Experimental Biology 198(Pt 3): 629-632.

Weber, J. M., Roberts, T.J. et al. (1993). Mismatch between lipid mobilization and oxidation: glycerol kinetics in running African goats. Am. J. Physiol. 264(4 Pt 2): R797-803.