Publications

Roberts, T.J., Konow, N. (2013). How tendons buffer energy dissipation by muscle. Exerc. Sport. Sci. Rev. 41: 186-193. 

Azizi, E., Roberts, T.J. (2013). Variable gearing in a biologically inspired pneumatic actuator array. Bioinspiration. &. Biomimetics. 8: 026002. Fulltext

Matson, A., Konow, N., Miller, S., Konow, P.P., Roberts, T.J. (2012). Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles. J. Exp. Biol 215: 3552-3558. Fulltext

Langman, V.A., Rowe, M.F., Roberts, T.J., Langman, N.V., Taylor, C.R. (2012). Minimum cost of transport in Asian elephants: do we really need a bigger elephant? J. Exp. Biol 215: 1509-1514. Fulltext

Astley, H.C., Roberts, T.J. (2012). Evidence for a vertebrate catapult: elastic energy storage in the plantaris tendon during frog jumping. Biol. Lett 8: 386-389. Fulltext

Konow, N., Azizi, E. and Roberts, T. J. (2011). Muscle power attenuation by tendon during energy dissipation. Proc Biol Sci. 279 (1731), 1108-1113. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J., Abbott, E. M. and Azizi, E. (2011). The weak link: do muscle properties determine locomotor performance in frogs? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 366, 1488-1495. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and Azizi, E. (2011). Flexible mechanisms: the diverse roles of biological springs in vertebrate movement. J Exp Biol 214, 353-361. Fulltext

Kim, H. R., Liu, K., Roberts, T.J. and Hai, C.-M. (2010). Length-Dependent modulation of cytoskeletal remodeling and mechanical energetics in airway smooth muscle. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 44(6), 888-897. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and Azizi, E. (2010). The series-elastic shock absorber: tendons attenuate muscle power during eccentric actions. J Appl Physiol 109, 396-404. Fulltext

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T. J. (2010). Muscle performance during frog jumping: influence of elasticity on muscle operating lengths. Proc Biol Sci 277, 1523-1530. Fulltext

Azizi, E. and Roberts, T. J. (2009). Biaxial strain and variable stiffness in aponeuroses. J Physiol 587, 4309-4318. Fulltext

Azizi, E., Halenda, G. M. and Roberts, T. J. (2009). Mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis in wild turkeys. Integr. Comp. Biol. 49, 51-58. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and Gabaldon, A. M. (2008). Interpreting muscle function from EMG: lessons learned from direct measurements of muscle force. Int. Comp. Biol. 48, 312-320. Fulltext

Nelson, F. E. and Roberts, T. J. (2008). Task-dependent force sharing between muscle synergists during locomotion in turkeys. J. Exp. Biol. 211, 1211-1220. Fulltext

 Azizi, E., Brainerd, E. L. and Roberts, T. J. (2008). Variable gearing in pennate muscles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105 (5), 1745-1750. Fulltext

Gabaldon, A. M., Nelson, F. E. and Roberts, T. J. (2008). Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/Vmax. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 294, R200-R210. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J., Higginson, B. K., Nelson, F. E. and Gabaldon, A. M. (2007). Muscle strain is modulated more with running slope than speed in wild turkey knee and hip extensors. J. Exp. Biol. 210, 2510-2517. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and Belliveau, R. (2005) Sources of mechanical power for uphill running in humans. J. Exp. Biol. 208(10), 1963-1970. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and J. A. Scales. (2004). Adjusting muscle function to demand: joint work during running accelerations in wild turkeys. J. Exp. Biol., 207(23), 4165-4174. Fulltext

Biewener, A. A., Farley, C. T., Roberts, T. J. and Temaner, M. (2004). Muscle mechanical advantage of human walking and running: implications for energy cost. J Appl Physiol. 97, 2266-2274. Fulltext

Gabaldon, A. M., Nelson, F. E. and Roberts, T. J. (2004). Mechanical function of two ankle extensors in wild turkeys: shifts from energy production to energy absorption during incline versus decline running. J. Exp. Biol. 207(13), 2277-2288. Fulltext

Nelson, F. E., Gabaldon, A. M. and Roberts, T. J. (2004). Force-velocity properties of two avian hindlimb muscles. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 137(4), 711- 721. Fulltext

Roberts T.J. and Marsh R.L. (2003) Probing the limits to muscle-powered accelerations: lessons from jumping bullfrogs. J. Exp. Biol. 206, 2567-2580. Fulltext

Griffin T.M., Roberts T.J., and Kram R. (2003) Metabolic cost of generating muscular force in human walking: insights from load-carrying and speed experiments. J. Appl. Physiol. 95, 172-183. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. (2002). The integrated function of muscles and tendons during locomotion. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A: 133, 1087-1099. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. and Scales, J. A. (2002). Mechanical power output during running accelerations in wild turkeys. J. Exp. Biol. 205, 1485-1494. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. ( 2001) Muscle force and stress during running in dogs and wild turkeys. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 156(1), 283-295.

Biewener, A. A. and T. J. Roberts. (2000). Muscle and tendon contributions to force, work, and elastic energy savings: a comparative perspective. Exerc. Sport Sci. Rev 28(3), 99-107. Abstract

Roberts, T. J., Kram, R., Weyand, P. G. and C. R. Taylor. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running I. Metabolic cost of generating force. J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2745-2751. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J., Chen, M. S. and C. R. Taylor. (1998). Energetics of bipedal running II. Limb design and running mechanics. J. Exp. Biol. 201, 2753-2762. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J. (1998). Moving on land: optimizing for minimum cost. In Diversity in biological design: Symmorphosis - fact or fancy (ed. E. R. Weibel, C. R. Taylor and L. C. Bolis), pp. 114-120. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Book Chapter

Roberts, T. J., Marsh, R. L., Weyand, P. G. and C. R. Taylor. (1997). Muscular force in running turkeys: the economy of minimizing work. Science 275, 1113-1115. Fulltext

Langman, V. A., Rowe, M., Forthman, D., Whitton, B., Langman, N., Roberts, T. J., Huston, K., Boling, C. and D. Maloney. (1996). Thermal assesment of zoological exhibits I: sea lion enclosure at the Audobon Zoo. Zoo Biology 15, 403-411. Fulltext

Roberts, T. J., Weber, J.-M., Hoppeler, H., Weibel, E. R. and C. R. Taylor. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. II. Defining the upper limits of carbohydrate and fat oxidation. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 1651-1658. Fulltext

Weibel, E. R., Taylor, C. R., Weber, J.-M., Vock, R., Roberts, T. J. and H. Hoppeler. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. VII. Different structural limits for oxygen and substrate supply to muscle mitochondria. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 1699-1709. Fulltext

Weber, J.-M., Roberts, T. J., Vock, R., Weibel, E. R. and C. R. Taylor. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. III. Partitioning energy provision from carbohydrates. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 1659-1666. Fulltext

Taylor, C. R., Weibel, E. R., Weber, J.-M., Vock, R., Hoppeler, H., Roberts, T. J. and G. Brichon. (1996). Design of the oxygen and substrate pathways. I. Model and strategy to test symmorphosis in a network structure. J. Exp. Biol. 199, 1643-1649. Fulltext

Weber, J.-M., Roberts, T. J. and C. R. Taylor.  (1993). Mismatch between lipid mobilization and oxidation: glycerol kinetics in running African goats. Am. J. Phys. 264, R797-R803. Fulltext