African American Ethics Articles

African Americans, Health, and Ethics

Abernethy, A.D., Magat, M.M., Houston, T.R., et al., “Recruiting African American men for cancer screening studies: applying a culturally based model,” Health education & behavior 32.4 (Aug. 2005): 441-51. 

Adler, Tina, “Ethics in environmental health,” Environmental Health Perspectives 112. 17 (2004): A988(3).

Airhihenbuwa C.O., Liburd, L., “Eliminating health disparities in the african american population: the interface of culture, gender, and power,” Health education & behavior 33.4 (Aug. 2006): 488-501 .

Alvidrez, J., Arean, P.A., “Psychosocial treatment research with ethnic minority populations: ethical considerations in conducting clinical trials,” Ethics & behavior 12, 1 (2002): 103-16.

Anderson, R. M., “Is it ethical to assign medically underserved African Americans to a usual-care control group in community-based intervention research?” Diabetes Care 28, 7 (2005 Jul; 28): 1817-20.

Ard, J. D., Carter-Edwards, L., Svetkey, L. P., “A New Model for Developing and Executing Culturally Appropriate Behavior Modification Clinical Trials for African Americans,” Ethnicity & disease 13, Part 2 (2003): 279-285.

Armstrong, T.D., Crum, L.D., Rieger, R.H., et al., “Attitudes of African Americans toward participation in medical research,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 29 (1999): 552-574.

Ashing-Giwa, K., “The recruitment of breast cancer survivors into cancer control studies: a focus on African-American women,” Journal of the National Medical Association 91 (1999):255-60.

Baker, R., “Minority distrust of medicine: a historical perspective,” Mount Sinai Journal Of Medicine 66 (1999):212-22.

Banks-Wallace, J. “Womanist ways of knowing: theoretical considerations for research with African American women,” Advances in nursing science 22, 3 (2000 Mar): 33-45. 

Bates, B.R., Lynch, J.A., Bevan, J.L., et al., “Warranted concerns, warranted outlooks: a focus group study of public understandings of genetic research,” Social science & medicine 60, 2 (2005 Jan): 331-44.  

Baugh, J., “African-Americans and the environment: A review essay,” Policy studies journal 19 (1991):182-191.

Bayer, R., Fairchild, A.L., “The genesis of public health ethics,” Bioethics 18, 6 (2004 Nov): 473-92.

Bediako, S. M., Kwate, N. O. A., Rucker, R., “Dietary Behavior Among African Americans: Assessing Cultural Identity and Health Consciousness,” Ethnicity & disease 14, 4 (2004): 527-532.

Benedek, T.G., Erlen, J., “The scientific environment of the Tuskegee Study of Syphilis, 1920-1960,” Perspectives in biology and medicine 43 (1999):1-30.

Bonner, G.J., Miles, T.P., “Participation of African Americans in clinical research,” Neuroepidemiology 16 (1997): 281-4.

Boothe, E.J., “African American attitudes toward participation in health care,” The ABNF Journal: the official journal of the Association of Black Nursing Faculty in Higher Education, Inc. 9 (1998):14-6.

Braithwaite, Ronald L., Taylor, Sandra E., Health issues in the Black community (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001).

Bullard, Robert D.  Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality (Westview Press, 2000).

Burrus, B.B., Liburd, L.C., Burroughs, A., “Maximizing participation by black Americans in population-based diabetes research: the Project DIRECT pilot experience,” Journal of community health 23 (1998):15-27.

Byrd, W. Michael, Clayton, Linda A., An American health dilemma : a medical history of African Americans and the problem of race ; beginnings to 1900 (London: Routledge, 2000).

Claudio, L., Tulton, L., Doucette, J., et al., “Socioeconomic factors and asthma hospitalization rates in New York City,” Journal of Asthma 36 (1999): 343.

Corbie-Smith, G., Moody-Ayers, S., Thrasher, A.D., “Closing the circle between minority inclusion in research and health disparities,” Archives of internal medicine 164, 13 (2004 Jul 12): 1362-4.

Corbie-Smith, G., Thomas, S.B., Williams, M.V., et al., “Attitudes and beliefs of African Americans toward participation in medical research,” Journal of general internal medicine 14 (1999):537-46.

Corbie-Smith, G., “The continuing legacy of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: considerations for clinical investigation,” The American journal of the medical sciences 317 (1999):5-8.

Coughlin, S.S., Etheredge, G.D., Metayer, C., et al., “Remember Tuskegee: public health student knowledge of the ethical significance of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study,” American journal of preventive medicine 12 (1996):242-6.

Davis, D.S., “Groups, communities, and contested identities in genetic research,” The Hastings Center report 30, 6 (2000 Nov-Dec): 38-45.

DeBate, R. ,Plescia, M., Joyner, D, et al., “A Qualitative Assessment of Charlotte REACH: An Ecological Perspective for Decreasing CVD and Diabetes Among African Americans,” Ethnicity & disease 14, SUPP/1 (2004): S1-77-S1-82.

Dennis, B.P., Neese, J.B., “Recruitment and retention of African American elders into community-based research: lessons learned,” Archives of psychiatric nursing 14 (2000):3-11.

Dennis, B.P., “The origin and nature of informed consent: experiences among vulnerable groups.” Journal of professional nursing 15 (1999): 281-7.

Fairchild, A.L., Bayer, R., “Uses and abuses of Tuskegee,” Science 284 (1999): 919-21.

Fouad, M.N., Partridge, E., Wynn, T., et al., “Statewide Tuskegee Alliance for clinical trials - A community coalition to enhance minority participation in medical research,” Cancer Cytopathology 91 (2001): 237-241.

Fouad, N.N., Partridge, E, Green, B.L., et al., “Minority recruitment in clinical trials: A conference at Tuskegee, researchers and the community,” Annals of epidemiology 10 (2000): S35-S40.

Freedman, T.G., “’Why don't they come to Pike Street and ask us?’: Black American women's health concerns,” Social Science & Medicine 47 (1998): 941-7.

Freimuth, V.S., Quinn, S.C., Thomas, S.B., et al. “African Americans' views on research and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study,” Social Science & Medicine 52 (2001):797-808.

Frumkin, H., Walker, E.D., Friedman-Jimenez, G. “Minority workers and communities,” Occupational medicine 14 (1999): 495-517.

Gamble, V.N., “A legacy of distrust: African Americans and medical research,” American journal of preventive medicine  9 (1993): 35-8.

Gamble, V.N., “The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health,” Journal of the American Medical Women's Association 52 (1997): 195-6.

Gamble, V.N., “Under the shadow of Tuskegee: African Americans and health care,” American journal of public health 87 (1997): 1773-8.

Gauthier, M.A., Clarke, W.P., “Gaining and sustaining minority participation in longitudinal research projects,” Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 13, Supplement 1 (1999): S29-33.

Glave, Dianne D., Stoll, Mark, “To Love the Wind And Rain”: African Americans And Environmental History (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005).

Gorelick, P.B., Harris, Y., Burnett, B., et al., “The recruitment triangle: Reasons why African Americans enroll, refuse to enroll, or voluntarily withdraw from a clinical trial - An interim report from the African-American Antiplatelet Stroke Prevention Study (AAASPS),” Journal Of The National Medical Association 90 (1998):141-145.

Green, B.L., Partridge, E.E., Fouad, M.N., et al., “African-American attitudes regarding cancer clinical trials and research studies: results from focus group methodology,” Ethnicity & disease 10 (2000): 76-86.

Greenberg, Michael R., “Concern about Environmental Pollution: How Much Difference Do Race and Ethnicity Make? A New Jersey Case Study,” Environmental health perspectives 113, 4 (2005): 369-374.

Harris, Y., Gorelick, P.B., Samuels, P., et al., “Why African Americans may not be participating in clinical trials,” Journal of the National Medical Association 88 (1996): 630-4.

Hatchett, B.F., Holmes, K., Duran, D.A., “African Americans and research participation - The recruitment process,” Journal of Black Studies 30 (2000): 664-675.

Hauser, J.M., Kleefield, S.F., Brennan, T.A., et al., “Minority populations and advance directives: insights from a focus group methodology,” Cambridge quarterly of healthcare ethics 6 (1997): 58-71.

Jackson, F. “African-American responses to the Human Genome Project,” Public Understanding Of Science 8 (1999): 181-191.

Jackson, F. “Scientific limitations and ethical ramifications of a non-representative Human Genome Project: African American response,” Science And Engineering Ethics 4 1998: 155-170.

Kajubi C., “On establishing trust,” Mount Sinai Journal Of Medicine 66 (1999): 262-262.

Katz, R., Kegeles, S., Kressin, N., et al., “Willingness to participate in biomedical research. African-americans vs whites,” Annals of epidemiology 10 (2000): 456-457.  

Katz, R.V., Kegeles, S.S., Green, B.L., et al., “The Tuskegee Legacy Project: history, preliminary scientific findings, and unanticipated societal benefits,” Dental clinics of North America 47, 1 (2003 Jan): 1-19.

Lillie-Blanton, M., Hoffman, S.C., “Conducting an assessment of health needs and resources in a racial/ethnic minority community,” Health services research 30 (1995): 225-36.

List, J.M., “Histories of mistrust and protectionism: disadvantaged minority groups and human-subject research policies,” The American journal of bioethics 5, 1 (2005 Winter): 53-6; author reply W15-8.

Lurie, P., Wolfe, S.M., “Tuskegee as a metaphor [letter],” Science 285 (1999): 47-8; discussion 49-50.

Mason, S.E., “Offering African Americans opportunities to participate in clinical trials research: how social workers can help,” Health & social work 30, 4 (2005 Nov): 296-304. 

 Mattingly, C.,  “Toward a vulnerable ethics of research practice,” Health  9, 4 (2005 Oct): 453-71.

Mayer, Sylvia, Restoring the Connection to the Natural World : Essays on the African American Environmental Imagination (Lit Verlag, 2003).

McGary, H., “Distrust, social justice, and health care,” Mount Sinai Journal Of Medicine 66 (1999): 236-40.

Miner, S., Tolnay, S., “Barriers to voluntary organization membership: an examination of race and cohort differences,” The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences 53 (1998): S241-8.

Moorman, P.G., Newman, B., Millikan, R.C., et al., “Participation rates in a case-control study: the impact of age, race, and race of interviewer,” Annals of epidemiology  9 (1999): 188-95.

Mouton, C.P., Harris, S., Rovi, S., et al., “Barriers to black women's participation in cancer clinical trials,” Journal of the National Medical Association 89 (1997): 721-7.

Mouton, C.P., Johnson, M.S., Cole, D.R., “Ethical considerations with African-American elders,” Clinics in geriatric medicine 11 (1995): 113-29.

Muntaner, C., “Invited commentary: social mechanisms, race, and social epidemiology,” American journal of epidemiology 150 (1999): 121-6; discussion 127-8.

Murphy, S.T., Palmer, J.M., Azen S., et al., “Ethnicity and advance care directives,” The Journal of law, medicine & ethics  24, 2 (1996 Summer): 108-17.

Napholz, L., “Enhancing research participation and retention for three ethnically diverse groups,” Journal of cultural diversity 5 (1998): 117-9.

Napoles-Springer, A.M., Grumbach, K., Alexander, M., et al., “Clinical research with older African Americans and Latinos - Perspectives from the community,” Research On Aging 22 (2000): 668-69.

Noah, B.A., “Racial disparities in the delivery of health care,” The San Diego law review 35, 1 (1998 Winter): 135-78

Northridge, M, E., Shepard, P.M., “Environmental racism and public health,” American journal of public health 87 (1997): 730-2.

Oliver, M.N., Muntaner, C., “Researching health inequities among African Americans: the imperative to understand social class,” International journal of health services: planning, administration, evaluation 35, 3 (2005): 485-98.

Outlaw, F.H., Bourjolly, J.N., Barg, F.K., “A study on recruitment of black Americans into clinical trials through a cultural competence lens,” Cancer nursing 23 (2000): 444-51; quiz 451-2.

Parker, J.D., McDonough, M.H., “Environmentalism of African Americans - An analysis of the subculture and barriers theories,” Environment and Behavior 31 (1999):155-177.

Phipps, E.J., True, G., Murray, G.F., “Community perspectives on advance care planning: report from the Community Ethics Program,” Journal of cultural diversity 10, 4 (2003 Winter): 118-23.

Rehner, T.A., Kolbo, J.R., Trump, R., et al., “Depression among victims of south Mississippi's methyl parathion disaster,” Health & social work 25 (2000): 33-40.

Reverby, S.M., “’Misrepresentations of the Tuskegee Study’--distortion of analysis and facts?”          Journal of the National Medical Association 97, 8 (2005 Aug): 1180-1.

Reverby, S.M., “Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Nurse Rivers, silence and the meaning of treatment,” Nursing history review 7 (1999): 3-28.

Robinson, S.B., Ashley, M., Haynes, M.A., “Attitude of African-Americans regarding prostate cancer clinical trials,” Journal of community health 21 (1996): 77-87.

Robinson, S.B., Ashley, M., Haynes, M.A., “Attitudes of African Americans regarding screening for prostate cancer,” Journal of the National Medical Association 88 (1996): 241-6.

Schmidt V.H., “The politics of justice and the paradox of justification,” Social justice research 11, 1 (1998 Mar): 3-19.

Sengupta, S., Strauss, R.P., DeVellis, R., et al., “Factors affecting African-American participation in AIDS research,” Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes 24 (2000): 275-84.

Shavers, V.L., Lynch, C.F., Burmeister, L.F., “Racial differences in factors that influence the willingness to participate in medical research studies,” Annals of epidemiology 12, 4 (2002 May): 248-56. 

Shavers, V.L., Lynch, C.F., Burmeister, L.F., “Factors that influence African-Americans' willingness to participate in medical research studies,” Cancer 91, 1 (2001 Jan): 233-6.

Shavers-Hornaday, V.L., Lynch, C.F., Burmeister, L.F., et al., “Why are African Americans under-represented in medical research studies? Impediments to participation,” Ethnicity & health 2, 1-2 (1997 Mar-Jun): 31-45.

Silver, G.A., “The infamous Tuskegee Study [letter],” American journal of public health 78 (1988), 1500.

Silvers, A., “Historical vulnerability and special scrutiny: precautions against discrimination in medical research,” The American journal of bioethics 4, 3 (2004 Summer): 56-7; discussion W32.

Smith, C., “African Americans and the medical establishment,” Mount Sinai Journal Of Medicine 66 (1999): 280-1.

Sodeke, S., “Protecting vulnerable populations: Tuskegee's National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care is helping to pioneer participatory methods,” Protecting human subjects 9 (2003 Fall): 8-9.

Talone, P., “Establishing trust after Tuskegee [editorial],” International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 40 (1998): 3-4.

Thomas, S.B., Curran, J.W., “Tuskegee: from science to conspiracy to metaphor [editorial; comment],” The American journal of the medical sciences 317 (1999): 1-4.

Weijer, C., Crouch, R.A., “Why should we include women and minorities in randomized controlled trials?” Journal Of Clinical Ethics 10 (1999): 100-106.

Weijer, C., “Another Tuskegee? [comment],” The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 61 (1999): 1-3.

Welsh, K.A., Ballard, E., Nash, F., et al., “Issues affecting minority participation in research studies of Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer disease and associated disorders 8 (1994): 38-48.

Wertz, D.C., “The difficulties of recruiting minorities to studies of ethics and values in genetics,” Community genetics 1, 3 (1998): 175-9. 

Westra, L., “Environmental integrity, racism, health,” The Science of the total environment 184, 1-2 (1996 May 17): 57-66.

Whaley, A.L., “Ethnicity/race, ethics, and epidemiology,” Journal of the National Medical Association 95, 8 (2003 Aug): 736-42.

Whitaker, Elizabeth Dixon, Health and healing in comparative perspective (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2006).

White, R.M., “Grand Dragon or windmill: why I opposed the Presidential apology for the Tuskegee Study [editorial],” Journal of the National Medical Association 89 (1997): 719-20.

White, R.M., “Unraveling the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis,” Archives of internal medicine 160 (2000): 585-98.

Williams, D.R., “Race and health: basic questions, emerging directions,” Annals of epidemiology 7 (1997): 322-33.

Wing, S., Cole, D., Grant, G., “Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry,” Environmental health perspectives 108 (2000): 225-31.

Witzig, R., “The medicalization of race: scientific legitimization of a flawed social construct,” Archives of internal medicine 125 (1996): 675-9.

Yankauer, A., “The neglected lesson of the Tuskegee study [letter; comment],” American journal of public health 88 (1998): 1406.