Part I: Background

Instructor PDF
Allow 15-20 minutes.

Study the timeline. What global trends do you see represented in the events of the year 1871? Are there similar events occurring in the world, the United States, Mexico, and Arizona? If you had to select a brief, one-word “theme” describing the year what would it be?

For instructors: Students may report on the rise of nationalism, political unrest, the passing of laws which increase the power of central government, military conflict.

Getting to know the groups involved:
Allow 50-90 minutes.
The class will be divided into five groups of equal size. Each group will research and prepare a brief oral report on one of the five groups: the O’Odham, the Mexicans/Sonorans, the US Arizona settlers, the US Army/federal government, or the Apache. You may use the Shadows at Dawn website, the book, or any other resources you feel might be helpful.
While compiling your report think about:
Each group’s connection to the land, especially to Tucson. How each group might have viewed itself in relation to the others, and additionally, how each viewed the others in relation to itself.
Specific motivations each group may have had in Arizona.
The influence and reputation of the group in Arizona.

For instructors: Students should be able to discern the roots of the conflict from this activity, as well as come away with some perspective on the issue. It should be emphasized that no one side has a completely “right” or “wrong” stance, and that each group believed it had legitimate investment in the region. If practicable, you may assign specific tasks to members of the groups; for example: presenter, recorder, book researcher, internet researcher, etc.