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References on Historic Scientific Instruments

Ladd Observatory

Other Historic Observatories

Riefler Clock at NIST

Related Research


  • Beckett, Edmund. A Rudimentary Treatise on Clocks and Watches and Bells. Seventh edition. London: Crosby Lockwood, 1883.
  • Bowie, William. Determination of Time, Longitude, Latitude, and Azimuth. Special Publication No. 14. Fifth edition. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1913.
  • Gould, R.E. Testing of Timepieces. Circular of the National Bureau of Standards C432. Washington: US Government Printing Office, 1941.
  • Haswell, J. Eric. Horology. London: Chapman and Hall, 1928.
  • Mercer, Vaudrey. The Frodshams. The Story of a Family of Chronometer Makers. Monograph No. 21 Antiquarian Horological Society, 1981.
  • Milham, Willis I. "Precision Clocks -- Their Construction, Care, and Accuracy." Time & Timekeepers. New York: MacMillan, 1923. 330-342.
  • Rawlings, A.L. The Science of Clocks and Watches. Second edition. New York: Pitman, 1948.